Halloween – Wikipedia

Halloween

A jack-o’-lantern, one of the symbols of Halloween

Also called

Hallowe’en

All Hallowe’en

All Hallows’ Eve

All Saints’ Eve

Observed byWestern ChrHalloween istians and plenty of non-Christians round the sector[1]SignificanceFirst day of AllhallowtideCelebrationsTrick-or-treating, dress parties, making jack-o’-lanterns, lights bonfires, divination, apple bobbing, touring haunted points of interest.ObservancesChurch services,[2] prayer,[3] fasting,[1] and vigil[four]Date31 OctoberRelated toTotensonntag, Blue Christmas, Thursday of the Dead, Samhain, Hop-tu-Naa, Calan Gaeaf, Allantide, Day of the Dead, Reformation Day, All Saints’ Day, Mischief Night (cf. vigil)

Halloween or Hallowe’en (a contraction of “All Hallows’ evening”),[five] additionally referred to as Allhalloween,[6] All Hallows’ Eve,[7] or All Saints’ Eve,[8] is a celebration found in many countrieson 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows’ Day. It starts the observance of Allhallowtide,[nine] the time inside the liturgical year devoted to remembering the useless, inclusive of saints (hallows), martyrs, and all of the devoted departed.[10][eleven]

One principle holds that many Halloween traditions can also were stimulated by using historical Celtic harvest festivals, specifically the Gaelic festival Samhain, which may additionally have had pagan roots;[12][13][14][15] a few students hold that Samhain can also were Christianized as All Hallow’s Day, together with its eve, by the early Church.[16] Other teachers believe, but, that Halloween started out solely as a Christian holiday, being the vigil of All Hallow’s Day.[17][18][19][20]

Halloween sports encompass trick-or-treating (or the associated guising and souling), attending Halloween costume parties, carving pumpkins into jack-o’-lanterns, lights bonfires, apple bobbing, divination games, gambling pranks, journeying haunted attractions, telling scary memories, as well as watching horror movies.[21] In many components of the world, the Christian non secular observances of All Hallows’ Eve, inclusive of attending church offerings and lighting fixtures candles at the graves of the dead, continue to be popular,[22][23][24] even though someplace else it is a extra business and secular birthday celebration.[25][26][27] Some Christians traditionally abstained from meat on All Hallows’ Eve, a culture meditated within the eating of sure vegetarian foods on this vigil day, consisting of apples, potato pancakes, and soul desserts.[28][29][30][31]

Etymology

The phrase appears as the identify of Robert Burns’ “Halloween” (1785), a poem traditionally recited via Scots.

The word Halloween or Hallowe’en dates to about 1745[32] and is of Christian origin.[33] The phrase “Hallowe’en” way “Saints’ evening”.[34] It comes from a Scottish time period for All Hallows’ Eve (the night earlier than All Hallows’ Day).[35] In Scots, the phrase “eve” is even, and this is shriveled to e’en or een.[36] Over time, (All) Hallow(s) E(v)en developed into Hallowe’en. Although the word “All Hallows'” is observed in Old English, “All Hallows’ Eve” is itself now not seen until 1556.[35][37]

History

Gaelic affect

Today’s Halloween customs are thought to have been motivated through folk customs and beliefs from the Celtic-talking nations, a number of which can be believed to have pagan roots.[38] Jack Santino, a folklorist, writes that “there has been at some stage in Ireland an uneasy truce existing among customs and beliefs related to Christianity and those associated with religions that were Irish before Christianity arrived”.[39] Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that whilst “a few folklorists have detected its origins within the Roman dinner party of Pomona, the goddess of end result and seeds, or inside the competition of the useless referred to as Parentalia, it’s miles greater generally connected to the Celtic festival of Samhain, which comes from the Old Irish for ‘summer time’s give up’.”[forty]

Samhain become the primary and maximum important of the four zone days within the medieval Gaelic calendar and changed into celebrated on 31 October – 1 November[forty one] in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man.[42][43] A kindred festival was held at the same time of yr with the aid of the Brittonic Celts, called Calan Gaeaf in Wales, Kalan Gwav in Cornwall and Kalan Goañv in Brittany; a call meaning “first day of winter”. For the Celts, the day ended and began at sundown; thus the competition started at the night earlier than 7 November by using modern-day reckoning (the 1/2 factor among equinox and solstice).[forty four] Samhain is mentioned in some of the earliest Irish literature. The names had been used by historians to consult Celtic Halloween customs up till the nineteenth century,[forty five] and are still the Gaelic and Welsh names for Halloween.

Snap-Apple Night, painted by way of Daniel Maclise in 1833, indicates people feasting and playing divination video games on Halloween in Ireland.

Samhain marked the give up of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the ‘darker half of’ of the year.[forty six][forty seven] Like Beltane/Calan Mai, it became seen as a liminal time, when the boundary among this international and the Otherworld thinned. This meant the Aos Sí, the ‘spirits’ or ‘fairies’, ought to more without problems come into this international and have been particularly energetic.[48][forty nine] Most scholars see the Aos Sí as “degraded versions of ancient gods […] whose strength remained lively in the humans’s minds even after they have been officially replaced with the aid of later spiritual beliefs”.[50] The Aos Sí have been each reputable and feared, with people frequently invoking the protection of God while drawing close their dwellings.[51][52] At Samhain, it turned into believed that the Aos Sí had to be propitiated to make sure that the human beings and their farm animals survived the winter. Offerings of food and drinks, or portions of the vegetation, were left outside for the Aos Sí.[53][fifty four][55] The souls of the lifeless had been also said to revisit their homes looking for hospitality.[56] Places were set at the dinner table and by means of the fireplace to welcome them.[fifty seven] The notion that the souls of the useless return home on one night time of the yr and have to be appeased seems to have historic origins and is found in lots of cultures in the course of the arena.[58] In 19th century Ireland, “candles would be lit and prayers officially provided for the souls of the dead. After this the eating, consuming, and video games would start”.[fifty nine]

Throughout Ireland and Britain, the household festivities covered rituals and video games supposed to foretell one’s destiny, particularly regarding demise and marriage.[60] Apples and nuts were frequently used in these divination rituals. They protected apple bobbing, nut roasting, scrying or mirror-gazing, pouring molten lead or egg whites into water, dream interpretation, and others.[sixty one] Special bonfires have been lit and there have been rituals concerning them. Their flames, smoke and ashes had been deemed to have shielding and cleansing powers, and had been extensively utilized for divination.[forty six] In some places, torches lit from the bonfire had been carried sunwise around houses and fields to shield them.[forty five] It is recommended that the fires have been a type of imitative or sympathetic magic – they mimicked the Sun, assisting the “powers of growth” and retaining returned the decay and darkness of winter.[57][62][sixty three] In Scotland, those bonfires and divination video games were banned via the church elders in some parishes.[sixty four] In Wales, bonfires had been lit to “prevent the souls of the lifeless from falling to earth”.[65] Later, these bonfires served to maintain “away the devil”.[66]

From as a minimum the 16th century,[68] the festival blanketed mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales.[sixty nine] This involved people going house-to-residence in dress (or in conceal), usually reciting verses or songs in change for meals. It may have firstly been a culture wherein human beings impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, much like the custom of souling (see underneath). Impersonating those beings, or wearing a disguise, turned into also believed to guard oneself from them.[70] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers “personify the antique spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in alternate for desirable fortune”.[seventy one] In components of southern Ireland, the guisers included a interest horse. A guy dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses – a number of which had pagan overtones – in trade for food. If the household donated food it can count on precise fortune from the ‘Muck Olla’; not doing so might deliver misfortune.[seventy two] In Scotland, youths went residence-to-residence with masked, painted or blackened faces, frequently threatening to do mischief if they had been now not welcomed.[69] F. Marian McNeill suggests the historic festival blanketed people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces have been marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[68] In components of Wales, guys went about dressed as fearsome beings referred to as gwrachod.[69] In the past due nineteenth and early twentieth century, young human beings in Glamorgan and Orkney go-dressed.[69]

Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and hobby horses had been a part of different every year festivals. However, within the Celtic-speaking areas, they have been “specially suitable to a night upon which supernatural beings were stated to be overseas and could be imitated or warded off with the aid of human wanderers”.[69] From at the least the 18th century, “imitating malignant spirits” led to playing pranks in Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. Wearing costumes and playing pranks at Halloween spread to England in the 20th century.[sixty nine] Traditionally, pranksters used hollowed out turnips or mangel wurzels frequently carved with ugly faces as lanterns.[sixty nine] By individuals who made them, the lanterns were variously stated to symbolize the spirits,[69] or had been used to push back evil spirits.[seventy three][74] They have been commonplace in components of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands in the nineteenth century,[69] as well as in Somerset (see Punkie Night). In the 20th century they spread to other components of England and became generally referred to as jack-o’-lanterns.[69]

Christian affect

Today’s Halloween customs are idea to have been motivated by Christian dogma and practices derived from it.[75] Halloween is the night earlier than the Christian holy days of All Hallows’ Day (also known as All Saints’ or Hallowmas) on 1 November and All Souls’ Day on 2 November, consequently giving the holiday on 31 October the total call of All Hallows’ Eve (meaning the evening before All Hallows’ Day).[76] Since the time of the early Church,[seventy seven] fundamental feasts in Christianity (inclusive of Christmas, Easter and Pentecost) had vigils that started out the night time earlier than, as did the feast of All Hallows’.[78] These three days are together known as Allhallowtide and are a time for honoring the saints and praying for the lately departed souls who have yet to attain Heaven. Commemorations of all saints and martyrs have been held by numerous churches on numerous dates, commonly in springtime.[79] In 609, Pope Boniface IV re-dedicated the Pantheon in Rome to “St Mary and all martyrs” on thirteen May. This become the identical date as Lemuria, an historical Roman pageant of the lifeless, and the equal date as the commemoration of all saints in Edessa in the time of Ephrem the Syrian.[80]

The feast of All Hallows’, on its present day date within the Western Church, can be traced to Pope Gregory III’s (731–741) founding of an oratory in St Peter’s for the relics “of the holy apostles and of all saints, martyrs and confessors”.[81][82] In 835, All Hallows’ Day become formally switched to at least one November, the equal date as Samhain, on the behest of Pope Gregory IV.[eighty three] Some recommend this became because of Celtic have an effect on, while others advise it become a Germanic concept,[eighty three] even though it is claimed that both Germanic and Celtic-speaking peoples commemorated the dead at the start of iciness.[eighty four] They may have seen it because the most fitting time to do so, as it’s miles a time of ‘dying’ in nature.[eighty three][84] It is likewise recommended that the alternate become made at the “realistic grounds that Rome in summer could not accommodate the extraordinary number of pilgrims who flocked to it”, and perhaps because of public fitness considerations concerning Roman Fever – a sickness that claimed a number of lives at some stage in the sultry summers of the region.[85]

On All Hallows’ Eve, Christians in some elements of the arena visit cemeteries to pray and vicinity plant life and candles on the graves in their cherished ones.[86] The top picture indicates Bangladeshi Christians lighting candles at the headstone of a relative, at the same time as the lowest photograph suggests Lutheran Christians praying and lights candles in the front of the imperative crucifix of a graveyard.

By the stop of the 12th century that they had end up holy days of obligation throughout Europe and worried such traditions as ringing church bells for the souls in purgatory. In addition, “it became normal for criers wearing black to parade the streets, ringing a bell of mournful sound and calling on all correct Christians to recollect the poor souls.”[87] “Souling”, the custom of baking and sharing soul desserts for all christened souls,[88] has been suggested as the beginning of trick-or-treating.[89] The custom dates back as a minimum as far because the 15th century[ninety] and changed into found in components of England, Flanders, Germany and Austria.[58] Groups of negative humans, frequently children, could cross door-to-door for the duration of Allhallowtide, accumulating soul cakes, in alternate for praying for the useless, mainly the souls of the givers’ buddies and family.[90][91][ninety two] Soul cakes could additionally be provided for the souls themselves to consume,[fifty eight] or the ‘soulers’ could act as their representatives.[ninety three] As with the Lenten subculture of warm cross buns, Allhallowtide soul cakes have been often marked with a cross, indicating that they have been baked as alms.[ninety four] Shakespeare mentions souling in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[95] On the custom of wearing costumes, Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote: “It turned into historically believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints’ Day, and All Hallows’ Eve furnished one remaining danger for the useless to advantage vengeance on their enemies before transferring to the subsequent world. In order to avoid being identified with the aid of any soul that might be in search of such vengeance, human beings would don masks or costumes to hide their identities”.[96]

It is alleged that inside the Middle Ages, church buildings that were too negative to show the relics of martyred saints at Allhallowtide let parishioners dress up as saints instead.[ninety seven][98] Some Christians retain to have a look at this custom at Halloween today.[ninety nine] Lesley Bannatyne believes this may were a Christianization of an earlier pagan custom.[100] While souling, Christians could bring with them “lanterns made from hollowed-out turnips”.[one hundred and one] It has been counseled that the carved jack-o’-lantern, a famous symbol of Halloween, initially represented the souls of the dead.[102] On Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual reason, being lit to guide returning souls to the homes in their families, in addition to to deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folks.[103][104] Households in Austria, England and Ireland frequently had “candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly houses”. These have been called “soul lighting”.[a hundred and five][106][107] Many Christians in mainland Europe, in particular in France, believed “that when a year, on Hallowe’en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival” called the danse macabre, which has regularly been depicted in church ornament.[108] Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that “Christians have been moved through the sight of the Infant Jesus gambling on his mother’s knee; their hearts have been touched by way of the Pietà; and customer saints reassured them with the aid of their presence. But, all the at the same time as, the danse macabre advised them no longer to neglect the quit of all earthly things.”[109] This danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at courtroom masques, with people “dressing up as corpses from diverse strata of society”, and might have been the beginning of contemporary-day Halloween gown parties.[a hundred and one][one hundred ten][111]

In elements of Britain, those customs came beneath assault at some stage in the Reformation as a few Protestants berated purgatory as a “popish” doctrine incompatible with their notion of predestination. Thus, for some Nonconformist Protestants, the theology of All Hallows’ Eve was redefined; without the doctrine of purgatory, “the returning souls can not be travelling from Purgatory on their manner to Heaven, as Catholics regularly trust and assert. Instead, the so-referred to as ghosts are concept to be in actuality evil spirits. As such they’re threatening.”[106] Other Protestants maintained belief in an intermediate state, known as Hades (Bosom of Abraham),[112] and continued to have a look at the authentic customs, specially souling, candlelit processions and the ringing of church bells in reminiscence of the dead.[76][113] Mark Donnelly, a professor of medieval archaeology, and historian Daniel Diehl, with reference to the evil spirits, on Halloween, write that “barns and homes have been blessed to shield human beings and farm animals from the effect of witches, who had been believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveled the earth.”[114] In the nineteenth century, in some rural parts of England, households accumulated on hills at the night of All Hallows’ Eve. One held a bunch of burning straw on a pitchfork even as the relaxation knelt around him in a circle, praying for the souls of family and buddies till the flames went out. This become called teen’lay.[one hundred fifteen] Other customs blanketed the tindle fires in Derbyshire and all-night time vigil bonfires in Hertfordshire which have been lit to hope for the departed.[116] The rising reputation of Guy Fawkes Night (5 November) from 1605 onward, noticed many Halloween traditions appropriated through that vacation as a substitute, and Halloween’s popularity waned in Britain, with the noteworthy exception of Scotland.[117] There and in Ireland, they had been celebrating Samhain and Halloween on account that at the least the early Middle Ages, and the Scottish kirk took a more pragmatic technique to Halloween, seeing it as crucial to the life cycle and rites of passage of groups and therefore making sure its survival in the united states.[117]

In France, a few Christian families, at the night of All Hallows’ Eve, prayed beside the graves of their loved ones, placing down dishes full of milk for them.[one zero five] On Halloween, in Italy, some households left a big meal out for ghosts in their surpassed loved ones, earlier than they departed for church offerings.[118] In Spain, on this night, unique pastries are baked, called “bones of the holy” (Spanish: Huesos de Santo) and put them on the graves of the churchyard, a exercise that keeps to at the present time.[119]

Spread to North America

Lesley Bannatyne and Cindy Ott write that Anglican colonists in the southern United States and Catholic colonists in Maryland “recognized All Hallow’s Eve of their church calendars”,[a hundred and twenty][121] despite the fact that the Puritans of New England maintained robust opposition to the holiday, together with different traditional celebrations of the hooked up Church, which includes Christmas.[122] Almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th century provide no indication that Halloween turned into widely celebrated in North America.[123] It changed into no longer till mass Irish and Scottish immigration in the 19th century that Halloween became a chief excursion in America,[123] restrained to the immigrant groups in the course of the mid-19th century. It changed into gradually assimilated into mainstream society and turned into celebrated coast to coast by way of people of all social, racial, and religious backgrounds by using the primary decade of the 20 th century.[124] “In Cajun areas, a nocturnal Mass became said in cemeteries on Halloween night time. Candles that had been blessed were positioned on graves, and households once in a while spent the whole night at the graveside”.[one hundred twenty five] The every year Greenwich Village Halloween Parade turned into begun in 1974 by means of puppeteer and masks maker Ralph Lee of Greenwich Village; it’s far the arena’s largest Halloween parade and America’s only most important nighttime parade, attracting more than 60,000 costumed individuals,million spectators, and a international television target audience.[126]

Symbols

Development of artifacts and emblems associated with Halloween formed over time. Jack-o’-lanterns are traditionally carried by way of guisers on All Hallows’ Eve with a purpose to frighten evil spirits.[102][127] There is a popular Irish Christian folktale related to the jack-o’-lantern,[128] which in folklore is said to represent a “soul who has been denied entry into both heaven and hell”:[129]

On direction home after a night time’s ingesting, Jack encounters the Devil and tricks him into hiking a tree. A short-questioning Jack etches the sign of the cross into the bark, therefore trapping the Devil. Jack moves a good buy that Satan can never claim his soul. After a lifestyles of sin, drink, and lying, Jack is refused access to heaven whilst he dies. Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to permit Jack into hell and throws a stay coal instantly from the fires of hell at him. It become a chilly night time, so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop it from going out, on account that which era Jack and his lantern were roaming seeking out an area to rest.[130]

In Ireland and Scotland, the turnip has traditionally been carved at some stage in Halloween,[131][132] but immigrants to North America used the local pumpkin, that is both an awful lot softer and much large – making it less complicated to carve than a turnip.[131] The American lifestyle of carving pumpkins is recorded in 1837[133] and became at the beginning related to harvest time in preferred, not turning into specifically associated with Halloween till the mid-to-overdue 19th century.[134]

The cutting-edge imagery of Halloween comes from many assets, inclusive of Christian eschatology, national customs, works of Gothic and horror literature (such as the novels Frankenstein and Dracula) and traditional horror films (including Frankenstein and The Mummy).[a hundred thirty five][136] Imagery of the cranium, a reference to Golgotha in the Christian tradition, serves as “a reminder of death and the transitory satisfactory of human existence” and is consequently determined in memento mori and vanitas compositions;[137] skulls have consequently been common in Halloween, which touches in this theme.[138] Traditionally, the lower back walls of churches are “decorated with a depiction of the Last Judgment, whole with graves starting and the lifeless growing, with a heaven filled with angels and a hell filled with devils”, a motif that has permeated the observance of this triduum.[139] One of the earliest works as regards to Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne, who, in 1780, made note of pranks at Halloween; “What fearfu’ pranks happen!”, in addition to the supernatural related to the night time, “Bogies” (ghosts), influencing Robert Burns’ “Halloween” (1785).[a hundred and forty] Elements of the fall season, together with pumpkins, corn husks, and scarecrows, are also universal. Homes are often decorated with these sorts of symbols around Halloween. Halloween imagery includes topics of demise, evil, and mythical monsters.[141] Black cats, that have been lengthy associated with witches, also are a common image of Halloween. Black, orange, and from time to time purple are Halloween’s traditional hues.[142]

Trick-or-treating and guising

Trick-or-treating is a commonplace party for youngsters on Halloween. Children move in costume from residence to residence, requesting treats which include sweet or sometimes money, with the question, “Trick or treat?” The phrase “trick” implies a “hazard” to carry out mischief on the owners or their property if no deal with is given.[89] The practice is stated to have roots within the medieval practice of mumming, which is closely associated with souling.[143] John Pymm wrote that “a few of the ceremonial dinner days associated with the presentation of mumming performs were celebrated by way of the Christian Church.”[one hundred forty four] These ceremonial dinner days included All Hallows’ Eve, Christmas, Twelfth Night and Shrove Tuesday.[145][146] Mumming practiced in Germany, Scandinavia and other parts of Europe,[147] concerned masked people in fancy dress who “paraded the streets and entered homes to bounce or play dice in silence”.[148]

Girl in a Halloween dress in 1928, Ontario, Canada, the same province where the Scottish Halloween custom of guising is first recorded in North America

In England, from the medieval duration,[149] up till the Nineteen Thirties,[150] humans practiced the Christian custom of souling on Halloween, which involved agencies of soulers, each Protestant and Catholic,[113] going from parish to parish, begging the wealthy for soul cakes, in alternate for praying for the souls of the givers and their pals.[91] In the Philippines, the exercise of souling is referred to as Pangangaluwa and is practiced on All Hallow’s Eve amongst youngsters in rural regions.[21] People drape themselves in white cloths to represent souls after which go to houses, wherein they sing in go back for prayers and goodies.[21]

In Scotland and Ireland, guising – children disguised in gown going from door to door for meals or coins – is a conventional Halloween custom.[151] It is recorded in Scotland at Halloween in 1895 wherein masqueraders in hide sporting lanterns constituted of scooped out turnips, visit homes to be rewarded with desserts, fruit, and money.[132][152] In Ireland, the maximum famous phrase for children to shout (until the 2000s) became “Help the Halloween Party”.[151] The practice of guising at Halloween in North America is first recorded in 1911, where a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario, Canada mentioned youngsters going “guising” around the community.[153]

American historian and creator Ruth Edna Kelley of Massachusetts wrote the first e-book-duration history of Halloween inside the US; The Book of Hallowe’en (1919), and references souling in the bankruptcy “Hallowe’en in America”.[154] In her ebook, Kelley touches on customs that arrived from across the Atlantic;”Americans have fostered them, and are making this an event some thing like what it should had been in its pleasant days overseas. All Halloween customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of different countries”.[155]

While the primary reference to “guising” in North America happens in 1911, some other connection with ritual begging on Halloween seems, place unknown, in 1915, with a third reference in Chicago in 1920.[156] The earliest known use in print of the time period “trick or treat” seems in 1927, inside the Blackie Herald, of Alberta, Canada.[157]

The hundreds of Halloween postcards produced between the flip of the twentieth century and the Nineteen Twenties usually display children but not trick-or-treating.[158] Trick-or-treating does now not appear to have become a vast exercise in North America until the 1930s, with the primary US appearances of the time period in 1934,[159] and the first use in a country wide guide taking place in 1939.[160]

A famous version of trick-or-treating, referred to as trunk-or-treating (or Halloween tailgating), occurs when “children are supplied treats from the trunks of automobiles parked in a church automobile parking space”, or on occasion, a college automobile parking space.[119][161] In a trunk-or-deal with occasion, the trunk (boot) of each car is adorned with a sure topic,[162] which include the ones of kid’s literature, movies, scripture, and activity roles.[163] Trunk-or-treating has grown in popularity due to its notion as being more safe than going door to door, a factor that resonates properly with parents, in addition to the reality that it “solves the agricultural conundrum in which homes [are] constructed a 1/2-mile aside”.[164][a hundred sixty five]

Costumes

Halloween costumes are traditionally modeled after supernatural figures together with vampires, monsters, ghosts, skeletons, witches, and devils.[89] Over time, the costume selection extended to consist of popular characters from fiction, celebrities, and time-honored archetypes along with ninjas and princesses.

Halloween save in Derry, Northern Ireland, promoting masks

Dressing up in costumes and going “guising” became common in Scotland and Ireland at Halloween through the late nineteenth century.[132] A Scottish term, the subculture is called “guising” due to the disguises or costumes worn through the youngsters.[152] In Ireland the mask are called ‘fake faces’.[166] Costuming became popular for Halloween events within the US within the early twentieth century, as regularly for adults as for kids, and whilst trick-or-treating became turning into popular in Canada and america in the 1920s and Thirties.[157][167]

Eddie J. Smith, in his e book Halloween, Hallowed is Thy Name, offers a religious angle to the carrying of costumes on All Hallows’ Eve, suggesting that by way of dressing up as creatures “who at one time brought on us to fear and tremble”, human beings are able to poke fun at Satan “whose country has been plundered with the aid of our Saviour”. Images of skeletons and the useless are conventional decorations used as memento mori.[168][169]

“Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF” is a fundraising program to support UNICEF,[89] a United Nations Programme that gives humanitarian aid to children in developing international locations. Started as a neighborhood event in a Northeast Philadelphia community in 1950 and improved nationally in 1952, the program includes the distribution of small bins by faculties (or in current instances, corporate sponsors like Hallmark, at their certified shops) to trick-or-treaters, in which they are able to solicit small-exchange donations from the houses they go to. It is envisioned that youngsters have accrued more than $118 million for UNICEF because its inception. In Canada, in 2006, UNICEF decided to stop their Halloween collection packing containers, bringing up protection and administrative issues; after session with colleges, they instead redesigned the program.[170][171]

Since the late 2010s, ethnic stereotypes as costumes have increasingly more come under scrutiny inside the United States.[172] Such and different potentially offensive costumes have been met with growing public disapproval.[173][174]

Pet costumes

According to a 2018 record from the National Retail Federation, 30 million Americans will spend an predicted $480 million on Halloween costumes for his or her pets in 2018. This is up from an envisioned $two hundred million in 2010. The maximum popular costumes for pets are the pumpkin, observed by using the new canine, and the bumble bee in 0.33 place.[one hundred seventy five]

Games and other sports

In this 1904 Halloween greeting card, divination is depicted: the younger woman searching into a replicate in a darkened room hopes to seize a glimpse of her destiny husband.

There are numerous video games traditionally related to Halloween. Some of these games originated as divination rituals or methods of foretelling one’s future, in particular concerning demise, marriage and kids. During the Middle Ages, those rituals have been executed by using a “uncommon few” in rural communities as they were considered to be “lethal serious” practices.[176] In current centuries, those divination games were “a common characteristic of the household festivities” in Ireland and Britain.[60] They frequently contain apples and hazelnuts. In Celtic mythology, apples were strongly associated with the Otherworld and immortality, while hazelnuts were associated with divine understanding.[177] Some additionally suggest that they derive from Roman practices in birthday celebration of Pomona.[89]

Children bobbing for apples at Hallowe’en

The following sports were a common characteristic of Halloween in Ireland and Britain throughout the 17th–twentieth centuries. Some have emerge as more sizable and continue to be famous nowadays.

One not unusual game is apple bobbing or dunking (which may be called “dooking” in Scotland)[178] in which apples drift in a bathtub or a huge basin of water and the contributors must use best their teeth to get rid of an apple from the basin. A version of dunking entails kneeling on a chair, holding a fork between the teeth and seeking to force the fork into an apple. Another common sport includes hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones by using strings; those have to be eaten with out the use of palms whilst they continue to be attached to the string, an hobby that inevitably ends in a sticky face. Another as soon as-popular recreation includes hanging a small timber rod from the ceiling at head peak, with a lit candle on one give up and an apple hanging from the alternative. The rod is spun spherical and everybody takes turns to try to trap the apple with their tooth.[179]

Image from the Book of Hallowe’en (1919) showing numerous Halloween sports, such as nut roasting

Several of the conventional activities from Ireland and Britain contain foretelling one’s destiny partner or partner. An apple might be peeled in a single long strip, then the peel tossed over the shoulder. The peel is assumed to land in the shape of the primary letter of the destiny spouse’s name.[180][181] Two hazelnuts could be roasted close to a fireplace; one named for the man or woman roasting them and the other for the individual they choice. If the nuts bounce faraway from the heat, it’s far a horrific signal, however if the nuts roast quietly it foretells a terrific fit.[182][183] A salty oatmeal bannock would be baked; the character might eat it in three bites and then go to bed in silence with out anything to drink. This is said to result in a dream wherein their destiny spouse offers them a drink to quench their thirst.[184] Unmarried women were advised that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a reflect on Halloween night time, the face in their future husband might appear in the reflect.[185] However, in the event that they were destined to die earlier than marriage, a cranium would appear. The custom became vast enough to be honored on greeting playing cards[186] from the late nineteenth century and early 20th century.

Another famous Irish game become known as púicíní (“blindfolds”); someone could be blindfolded and then could select between numerous saucers. The object within the saucer could offer a touch as to their destiny: a hoop would suggest that they would marry quickly; clay, that they might die soon, perhaps in the year; water, that they might emigrate; rosary beads, that they would take Holy Orders (come to be a nun, priest, monk, and many others.); a coin, that they would emerge as wealthy; a bean, that they would be terrible.[187][188][189][190][191] The recreation features prominently inside the James Joyce brief story “Clay” (1914).[192][193][194]

In Ireland and Scotland, items would be hidden in meals – typically a cake, barmbrack, cranachan, champ or colcannon – and quantities of it served out at random. A character’s destiny could be foretold with the aid of the object they took place to locate; for instance, a hoop meant marriage and a coin supposed wealth.[195]

Up until the nineteenth century, the Halloween bonfires have been also used for divination in elements of Scotland, Wales and Brittany. When the fireplace died down, a hoop of stones might be laid inside the ashes, one for every person. In the morning, if any stone turned into mislaid it was stated that the character it represented might not live out the year.[45]

Telling ghost stories, being attentive to Halloween-themed songs and looking horror movies are not unusual furnishings of Halloween parties. Episodes of television collection and Halloween-themed specials (with the specials generally aimed toward children) are generally aired on or before Halloween, whilst new horror films are regularly launched before Halloween to take gain of the vacation.

Haunted attractions

Humorous tombstones in front of a house in California

Haunted sights are leisure venues designed to please and scare consumers. Most attractions are seasonal Halloween groups which can consist of haunted homes, corn mazes, and hayrides,[196] and the extent of sophistication of the outcomes has risen as the industry has grown.

The first recorded cause-built haunted attraction become the Orton and Spooner Ghost House, which opened in 1915 in Liphook, England. This enchantment certainly most intently resembles a carnival fun house, powered with the aid of steam.[197][198] The House nevertheless exists, inside the Hollycombe Steam Collection.

It become all through the Thirties, about the identical time as trick-or-treating, that Halloween-themed haunted houses first began to appear in America. It changed into in the overdue 1950s that haunted homes as a chief appeal began to appear, focusing first on California. Sponsored with the aid of the Children’s Health Home Junior Auxiliary, the San Mateo Haunted House opened in 1957. The San Bernardino Assistance League Haunted House opened in 1958. Home haunts started acting across the united states all through 1962 and 1963. In 1964, the San Manteo Haunted House opened, in addition to the Children’s Museum Haunted House in Indianapolis.[199]

The haunted residence as an American cultural icon may be attributed to the outlet of the Haunted Mansion in Disneyland on 12 August 1969.[2 hundred] Knott’s Berry Farm commenced website hosting its own Halloween night time attraction, Knott’s Scary Farm, which opened in 1973.[201] Evangelical Christians followed a shape of these attractions by starting one of the first “hell houses” in 1972.[202]

The first Halloween haunted residence run by using a nonprofit company changed into produced in 1970 via the Sycamore-Deer Park Jaycees in Clifton, Ohio. It became cosponsored by means of WSAI, an AM radio station broadcasting out of Cincinnati, Ohio. It was ultimate produced in 1982.[203] Other Jaycees observed in shape with their very own variations after the fulfillment of the Ohio house. The March of Dimes copyrighted a “Mini haunted residence for the March of Dimes” in 1976 and commenced fundraising thru their local chapters through undertaking haunted houses soon after. Although they apparently stop helping this form of event nationally sometime inside the Eighties, a few March of Dimes haunted houses have endured till nowadays.[204]

On the evening of 11 May 1984, in Jackson Township, New Jersey, the Haunted Castle (Six Flags Great Adventure) stuck fireplace. As a result of the fire, 8 young adults perished.[205] The backlash to the tragedy became a tightening of guidelines regarding safety, constructing codes and the frequency of inspections of sights national. The smaller venues, specially the nonprofit points of interest, had been unable to compete financially, and the better funded business businesses crammed the vacuum.[206][207] Facilities that have been as soon as able to keep away from regulation due to the fact they had been considered to be brief installations now had to adhere to the stricter codes required of everlasting attractions.[208][209][210]

In the overdue Eighties and early 1990s, topic parks entered the enterprise significantly. Six Flags Fright Fest started out in 1986 and Universal Studios Florida started Halloween Horror Nights in 1991. Knott’s Scary Farm experienced a surge in attendance within the 1990s due to America’s obsession with Halloween as a cultural occasion. Theme parks have played a major role in globalizing the vacation. Universal Studios Singapore and Universal Studios Japan each participate, while Disney now mounts Mickey’s Not-So-Scary Halloween Party occasions at its parks in Paris, Hong Kong and Tokyo, as well as in the United States.[211] The subject park haunts are through far the most important, each in scale and attendance.[212]

Food

Pumpkins for sale at some point of Halloween

On All Hallows’ Eve, many Western Christian denominations encourage abstinence from meat, giving upward thrust to a variety of vegetarian meals related to this present day.[213]

Because inside the Northern Hemisphere Halloween comes in the wake of the every year apple harvest, candy apples (called toffee apples outdoor North America), caramel apples or taffy apples are common Halloween treats made by way of rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, once in a while accompanied through rolling them in nuts.

At one time, sweet apples were generally given to trick-or-treating children, however the exercise swiftly waned within the wake of substantial rumors that a few people were embedding objects like pins and razor blades inside the apples inside the United States.[214] While there is evidence of such incidents,[215] relative to the degree of reporting of such cases, actual instances related to malicious acts are extremely uncommon and feature by no means resulted in severe damage. Nonetheless, many mother and father assumed that such heinous practices have been rampant because of the mass media. At the peak of the hysteria, a few hospitals offered unfastened X-rays of children’s Halloween hauls to be able to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all the few acknowledged sweet poisoning incidents worried dad and mom who poisoned their very own kid’s sweet.[216]

One custom that persists in contemporary-day Ireland is the baking (or extra often in recent times, the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish: báirín breac), that is a light fruitcake, into which a undeniable ring, a coin, and different charms are placed earlier than baking.[217] It is considered lucky to be the fortunate person who finds it.[217] It has additionally been stated that those who get a ring will discover their real love inside the ensuing 12 months. This is similar to the tradition of king cake on the competition of Epiphany.

List of meals associated with Halloween:

Barmbrack (Ireland)

Bonfire toffee (Great Britain)

Candy apples/toffee apples (Great Britain and Ireland)

Candy apples, sweet corn, sweet pumpkins (North America)

Chocolate

Monkey nuts (peanuts in their shells) (Ireland and Scotland)

Caramel apples

Caramel corn

Colcannon (Ireland; see under)

Halloween cake

Sweets/sweet

Novelty candy formed like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, and so forth.

Roasted pumpkin seeds

Roasted candy corn

Soul cakes

Pumpkin Pie

Christian non secular observances

The Vigil of All Hallows’ is being celebrated at an Episcopal Christian church on Hallowe’en

On Hallowe’en (All Hallows’ Eve), in Poland, believers have been once taught to pray out loud as they stroll through the forests simply so the souls of the lifeless may find consolation; in Spain, Christian monks in tiny villages toll their church bells so that you can remind their congregants to don’t forget the lifeless on All Hallows’ Eve.[218] In Ireland, and among immigrants in Canada, a custom consists of the Christian exercise of abstinence, retaining All Hallows’ Eve as a meat-free day, and serving pancakes or colcannon rather.[219] In Mexico youngsters make an altar to invite the go back of the spirits of useless youngsters (angelitos).[220]

The Christian Church historically determined Hallowe’en via a vigil. Worshippers organized themselves for feasting on the following All Saints’ Day with prayers and fasting.[221] This church service is known as the Vigil of All Hallows or the Vigil of All Saints;[222][223] an initiative referred to as Night of Light seeks to similarly unfold the Vigil of All Hallows for the duration of Christendom.[224][225] After the service, “appropriate festivities and entertainments” regularly follow, as well as a visit to the graveyard or cemetery, where vegetation and candles are often located in instruction for All Hallows’ Day.[226][227] In Finland, due to the fact so many humans visit the cemeteries on All Hallows’ Eve to mild votive candles there, they “are known as valomeri, or seas of mild”.[228]

Today, Christian attitudes towards Halloween are numerous. In the Anglican Church, some dioceses have selected to emphasize the Christian traditions associated with All Hallow’s Eve.[229][230] Some of those practices include praying, fasting and attending worship services.[1][2][3]

O LORD our God, growth, we pray thee, and multiply upon us the items of thy grace: that we, who do prevent the superb competition of all thy Saints, can also of thee be enabled joyfully to observe them in all virtuous and godly residing.Through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee, within the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, global with out give up.Amen. —Collect of the Vigil of All Saints, The Anglican Breviary[231]

Votive candles within the Halloween phase of Walmart

Other Protestant Christians also have fun All Hallows’ Eve as Reformation Day, an afternoon to take into account the Protestant Reformation, along All Hallow’s Eve or independently from it.[232] This is due to the fact Martin Luther is said to have nailed his Ninety-5 Theses to All Saints’ Church in Wittenberg on All Hallows’ Eve.[233] Often, “Harvest Festivals” or “Reformation Festivals” are held on All Hallows’ Eve, wherein children get dressed up as Bible characters or Reformers.[234] In addition to dispensing sweet to kids who’re trick-or-treating on Hallowe’en, many Christians also offer gospel tracts to them. One employer, the American Tract Society, said that round three million gospel tracts are ordered from them by myself for Hallowe’en celebrations.[235] Others order Halloween-themed Scripture Candy to pass out to children on this day.[236][237]

Belizean kids dressed up as Biblical figures and Christian saints

Some Christians sense involved approximately the contemporary party of Halloween due to the fact they feel it trivializes – or celebrates – paganism, the occult, or different practices and cultural phenomena deemed incompatible with their beliefs.[238] Father Gabriele Amorth, an exorcist in Rome, has stated, “if English and American kids want to dress up as witches and devils on one night of the 12 months that is not a problem. If it’s miles only a sport, there is no harm in that.”[239] In extra recent years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organized a “Saint Fest” on Halloween.[240] Similarly, many current Protestant churches view Halloween as a fun event for kids, holding events in their church buildings in which kids and their mother and father can get dressed up, play video games, and get candy free of charge. To those Christians, Halloween holds no risk to the non secular lives of youngsters: being taught approximately demise and mortality, and the approaches of the Celtic ancestors in reality being a precious lifestyles lesson and part of lots of their parishioners’ background.[241] Christian minister Sam Portaro wrote that Halloween is set the use of “humor and mock to confront the energy of dying”.[242]

In the Roman Catholic Church, Halloween’s Christian connection is recounted, and Halloween celebrations are commonplace in lots of Catholic parochial schools in the United States.[243][244] Many fundamentalist and evangelical churches use “Hell houses” and comic-style tracts with the intention to make use of Halloween’s reputation as an opportunity for evangelism.[245] Others keep in mind Halloween to be absolutely incompatible with the Christian religion because of its putative origins inside the Festival of the Dead birthday celebration.[246] Indeed, despite the fact that Eastern Orthodox Christians examine All Hallows’ Day on the First Sunday after Pentecost, The Eastern Orthodox Church recommends the observance of Vespers or a Paraklesis at the Western observance of All Hallows’ Eve, out of the pastoral want to provide an alternative to famous celebrations.[247]

Analogous celebrations and perspectives

Judaism

According to Alfred J. Kolatch within the Second Jewish Book of Why, in Judaism, Halloween isn’t always authorised by using Jewish Halakha because it violates Leviticus 18:3, which forbids Jews from participating in gentile customs. Many Jews have a look at Yizkor communally four instances a year, that’s vaguely much like the observance of Allhallowtide in Christianity, inside the sense that prayers are stated for both “martyrs and for one’s own family”.[248] Nevertheless, many American Jews rejoice Halloween, disconnected from its Christian origins.[249] Reform Rabbi Jeffrey Goldwasser has said that “There isn’t any religious reason why present day Jews ought to now not have a good time Halloween” even as Orthodox Rabbi Michael Broyde has argued in opposition to Jews’ staring at the vacation.[250]

Islam

Sheikh Idris Palmer, author of A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam, has ruled that Muslims have to no longer take part in Halloween, declaring that “participation in Halloween is worse than participation in Christmas, Easter, … it’s miles extra sinful than congratulating the Christians for their prostration to the crucifix”.[251] It has additionally been ruled to be haram by means of the National Fatwa Council of Malaysia due to its alleged pagan roots declaring “Halloween is celebrated using a funny topic mixed with horror to entertain and face up to the spirit of dying that affect humans”.[252][253] Dar Al-Ifta Al-Missriyyah disagrees provided the celebration is not called an ‘eid’ and that behaviour remains in keeping with Islamic concepts.[254]

Hinduism

Hindus do not forget the dead at some point of the competition of Pitru Paksha, for the duration of which Hindus pay homage to and carry out a ceremony “to maintain the souls of their ancestors at relaxation”. It is widely known within the Hindu month of Bhadrapada, normally in mid-September.[255] The birthday party of the Hindu festival Diwali occasionally conflicts with the date of Halloween; but a few Hindus pick out to take part inside the popular customs of Halloween.[256] Other Hindus, which includes Soumya Dasgupta, have adverse the celebration due to the fact Western vacations like Halloween have “all started to adversely have an effect on our indigenous fairs”.[257]

Neopaganism

There isn’t any constant rule or view on Halloween amongst folks that describe themselves as Neopagans or Wiccans. Some Neopagans do now not study Halloween, but as an alternative examine Samhain on 1 November,[258] a few neopagans do revel in Halloween festivities, stating that you could study both “the solemnity of Samhain further to the a laugh of Halloween”. Some neopagans are opposed to the party of Hallowe’en, stating that it “trivializes Samhain”,[259] and “keep away from Halloween, due to the interruptions from trick or treaters”.[260] The Manitoban writes that “Wiccans do not formally celebrate Halloween, notwithstanding the reality that 31 Oct. will nevertheless have a celeb beside it in any correct Wiccan’s day planner. Starting at sundown, Wiccans have fun a holiday known as Samhain. Samhain surely comes from vintage Celtic traditions and isn’t always exclusive to Neopagan religions like Wicca. While the traditions of this vacation originate in Celtic international locations, modern-day day Wiccans do not attempt to historically mirror Samhain celebrations. Some conventional Samhain rituals are nonetheless practised, however at its core, the period is handled as a time to have a good time darkness and the dead – a probable reason why Samhain may be pressured with Halloween celebrations.”[258]

Around the sector

Halloween display in Kobe, Japan

The traditions and significance of Halloween range greatly among international locations that have a look at it. In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs encompass youngsters dressing up in dress going “guising”, maintaining events, at the same time as other practices in Ireland encompass lighting fixtures bonfires, and having firework shows.[151][261][262] In Brittany children would play realistic jokes with the aid of setting candles inside skulls in graveyards to frighten site visitors.[263] Mass transatlantic immigration in the nineteenth century popularized Halloween in North America, and celebration inside the United States and Canada has had a huge impact on how the occasion is observed in different countries.[151] This larger North American have an impact on, specifically in iconic and industrial factors, has prolonged to places which include Ecuador, Chile,[264] Australia,[265] New Zealand,[266] (maximum) continental Europe, Finland,[267] Japan, and other parts of East Asia.[268] In the Philippines, during Halloween, Filipinos go back to their hometowns and buy candles and plants,[269] in instruction for the subsequent All Saints Day (Araw ng mga Patay) on 1 November and All Souls Day – even though it falls on 2 November, most Filipinos take a look at it on the day before.[270]

See alsoReferences^ a b c “BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows’ Eve”. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the unique on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. It is extensively believed that many Hallowe’en traditions have developed from an historical Celtic pageant known as Samhain which become Christianised by the early Church…. All Hallows’ Eve falls on 31st October each yr, and is the day before All Hallows’ Day, also called All Saints’ Day inside the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows’ Eve when worshippers might put together themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the ceremonial dinner day itself. The call derives from the Old English ‘hallowed’ which means holy or sanctified and is now commonly gotten smaller to the greater familiar word Hallowe’en. …However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe’en, as the eve of All Saints’ Day, originated entirely independently of Samhain …

^ a b “Service for All Hallows’ Eve”. The Book of Occasional Services 2003. Church Publishing, Inc. 2004. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-89869-409-three. This carrier can be used on the night of October 31, referred to as All Hallows’ Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may additionally take place earlier than or after this service, and a visit can be made to a cemetery or burial region.

^ a b Anne E. Kitch (2004). The Anglican Family Prayer Book. Church Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8192-2565-8. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2011. All Hallow’s Eve, which later have become known as Halloween, is widely known on the night earlier than All Saints’ Day, November 1. Use this simple prayer carrier along with Halloween festivities to mark the Christian roots of this festival.

^ The Paulist Liturgy Planning Guide. Paulist Press. 2006. ISBN 978-0-8091-4414-three. Archived from the unique on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Rather than compete, liturgy planners could do well to take into account methods of together with kids inside the birthday celebration of those vigil Masses. For example, children might be encouraged to put on Halloween costumes representing their client saint or their preferred saint, really including a new stage of meaning to the Halloween celebrations and the birthday celebration of All Saints’ Day.

^ Thomson, Thomas; Annandale, Charles (1896). A History of the Scottish People from the Earliest Times: From the Union of the kingdoms, 1706, to the present time. Blackie. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Of the said rustic festivals atypical to Scotland the maximum important turned into Hallowe’en, a contraction for All-hallow Evening, or the nighttime of All-Saints Day, the annual go back of which became a season for joy and festivity.

^ Palmer, Abram Smythe (1882). Folk-etymology. Johnson Reprint. p. 6.

^ Elwell, Walter A. (2001). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Baker Academic. p. 533. ISBN 978-zero-8010-2075-nine. Halloween (All Hallows Eve). The call given to October 31, the eve of the Christian festival of All Saints Day (November 1).

^ “NEDCO Producers’ Guide”. 31–33. Northeast Dairy Cooperative Federation. 1973. Originally celebrated because the night time before All Saints’ Day, Christians chose November first to honor their many saints. The night earlier than became known as All Saints’ Eve or hallowed eve meaning holy night.

^ “Tudor Hallowtide”. National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Hallowtide covers the 3 days – 31 October (All-Hallows Eve or Hallowe’en), 1 November (All Saints) and a couple of November (All Souls).

^ Hughes, Rebekkah (29 October 2014). “Happy Hallowe’en Surrey!” (PDF). The Stag. University of Surrey. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015. Halloween or Hallowe’en, is the every year celebration on October thirty first that indicates the primary day of Allhallowtide, being the time to keep in mind the lifeless, such as martyrs, saints and all devoted departed Christians.

^ Davis, Kenneth C. (29 December 2009). Don’t Know Much About Mythology: Everything You Need to Know About the Greatest Stories in Human History but Never Learned. Harper Collins. p. 231. ISBN 978-zero-06-192575-7.

^ Smith, Bonnie G. (2004). Women’s History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. p. sixty six. ISBN 978-zero-252-02931-eight. Retrieved 14 December 2015. The pre-Christian observance obviously inspired the Christian celebration of All Hallows’ Eve, simply as the Taoist pageant affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana competition. Although the Christian model of All Saints’ and All Souls’ Days came to emphasise prayers for the lifeless, visits to graves, and the role of the residing assuring the secure passage to heaven in their departed cherished ones, older notions never disappeared.

^ Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516896-nine. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween and the Day of the Dead share a not unusual origin within the Christian commemoration of the dead on All Saints’ and All Souls’ Day. But each are thought to embody robust pre-Christian ideals. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic party of Samhain is vital to its pagan legacy, a declare that has been foregrounded in recent years through both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right.

^ Austrian statistics. 1965. Retrieved 31 October 2011. The feasts of Hallowe’en, or All Hallows Eve and the devotions to the lifeless on All Saints’ and All Souls’ Day are each mixtures of antique Celtic, Druid and other pagan customs intertwined with Christian exercise.

^ Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopædia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. 1999. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween, additionally referred to as All Hallows’ Eve, holy or hallowed night determined on October 31, the eve of All Saints’ Day. The Irish pre-Christian observances stimulated the Christian pageant of All Hallows’ Eve, celebrated on the equal date.

^ Roberts, Brian K. (1987). The Making of the English Village: A Study in Historical Geography. Longman Scientific & Technical. ISBN 978-zero-582-30143-6. Retrieved 14 December 2015. Time out of time’, whilst the boundaries among this world and the following have been down, the dead returned from the grave, and gods and strangers from the underworld walked overseas turned into a twice- yearly truth, on dates Christianised as All Hallows’ Eve and All Hallows’ Day.

^ O’Donnell, Hugh; Foley, Malcolm (18 December 2008). Treat or Trick? Halloween in a Globalising World. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 91–ninety two. ISBN 978-1-4438-0265-9. Hutton (1996, 363) identifies Rhys as a key determine who, along side every other Oxbridge instructional, James Frazer, romanticised the belief of Samhain and exaggerated its have an effect on on Halloween. Hutton argues that Rhys had no substantiated documentary evidence for claiming that Halloween turned into the Celtic new 12 months, however inferred it from cutting-edge folklore in Wales and Ireland. Moreover, he argues that Rhys: “idea that [he] changed into vindicated while he paid a subsequent go to to the Isle of Man and discovered its human beings now and again referred to as 31 October New Year’s Night (Hog-unnaa) and practised customs which had been usually associated with 31 December. In reality the flimsy nature of all this evidence must were obvious from the start. The divinatory and purificatory rituals on 31 October could be defined with the aid of a connection to the most eerie of Christian feasts (All Saints) or by way of the fact that they ushered inside the maximum dreaded of seasons. The many “Hog-unnaa” customs have been additionally extensively practised at the conventional New Year’s Eve, and Rhys become uncomfortably conscious that they might surely had been transferred, in recent years, from then Hallowe’en, to boom merriment and fundraising at the latter. He were given spherical this trouble by means of asserting that in his opinion (primarily based upon no evidence at all) the switch were the alternative way round.” … Hutton points out that Rhy’s unsubstantiated notions had been further popularised by means of Frazer who used them to guide an idea of his very own, that Samhain, as well as being the beginning of Halloween, had additionally been a pagan Celtic banquet of the dead—a perception used to account for the detail of ghosts, witches and different unworldly spirits usually featured inside Halloween. … Halloween’s preoccupation with the netherworld and with the supernatural owes extra to the Christian pageant of All Saints or All Souls, in place of vice versa.

^ Barr, Beth Allison (28 October 2016). “Guess what? Halloween is more Christian than Pagan”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 October 2020. It is the medieval Christian gala’s of All Saints’ and All Souls’ that provide our firmest foundation for Halloween. From emphasizing lifeless souls (both suitable and evil), to redecorating skeletons, lighting candles for processions, building bonfires to push back evil spirits, organizing network feasts, and even encouraging carnival practices like costumes, the medieval and early present day traditions of “Hallowtide” match nicely with our modern-day holiday.So what does this all suggest?It method that once we celebrate Halloween, we are without a doubt taking part in a culture with deep ancient roots. But, while the ones roots are firmly located in the medieval Christian past, their historic connection to “paganism” is as a substitute greater tenuous.

^Moser, Stefan (29 October 2010). “Kein ‘Trick or Treat’ bei Salzburgs Kelten” (in German). Salzburger Nachrichten. Archived from the unique on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017. Die Kelten haben gar nichts mit Halloween zu tun”, entkräftet Stefan Moser, Direktor des Keltenmuseums Hallein, einen weit verbreiteten Mythos. Moser sieht die Ursprünge von Halloween insgesamt in einem christlichen Brauch, nicht in einem keltischen.

Döring, Alois; Bolinius, Erich (31 October 2006), Samhain – Halloween – Allerheiligen (in German), FDP Emden, Die lückenhaften religionsgeschichtlichen Überlieferungen, die auf die Neuzeit begrenzte historische Dimension der Halloween-Kultausprägung, vor allem auch die Halloween-Metaphorik legen nahe, daß wir umdenken müssen: Halloween geht nicht auf das heidnische Samhain zurück, sondern steht in Bezug zum christlichen Totengedenkfest Allerheiligen/ Allerseelen.

Hörandner, Editha (2005). Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo (in German). LIT Verlag Münster. pp. eight, 12, 30. ISBN 978-three-8258-8889-three. Der Wunsch nach einer Tradition, deren Anfänge sich in grauer Vorzeit verlieren, ist bei Dachleuten wie laien gleichmäßig verbreitet. … Abgesehen von Irrtümern wie die Herleitung des Fests in ungebrochener Tradition (“seit 2000 Jahren”) ist eine mangelnde vertrautheit mit der heimischen Folklore festzustellen. Allerheiligen struggle lange vor der Halloween invasion ein wichtiger Brauchtermin und ist das ncoh heute. … So wie viele heimische Bräuche generell als fruchtbarkeitsbringend und dämonenaustreibend interpretiert werden, became trottz aller Aufklärungsarbeit nicht auszurotten ist, begegnet united states of americaHalloween als …heidnisches Fest. Aber es wird nicht als solches inszeniert.

Döring, Dr. Volkskundler Alois (2011). “Süßes, Saures – olle Kamellen? Ist Halloween schon wieder out?” (in German). Westdeutscher Rundfunk. Archived from the unique on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2015. Dr. Alois Döring ist wissenschaftlicher Referent für Volkskunde beim LVR-Institut für Landeskunde und Regionalgeschichte Bonn. Er schrieb zahlreiche Bücher über Bräuche im Rheinland, darunter das Nachschlagewerk “Rheinische Bräuche durch das Jahr”. Darin widerspricht Döring der These, Halloween sei ursprünglich ein keltisch-heidnisches Totenfest. Vielmehr stamme Halloween von den britischen Inseln, der Begriff leite sich ab von “All Hallows eve”, Abend vor Allerheiligen. Irische Einwanderer hätten das Fest nach Amerika gebracht, so Döring, von wo aus es als “amerikanischer” Brauch nach Europa zurückkehrte.

^ “All Hallows’ Eve”. British Broadcasting Corporation. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2020. However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe’en, because the eve of All Saints’ Day, originated completely independently of Samhain and a few query the existence of a particular pan-Celtic religious festival which came about on 31st October/1st November.

^ a b c Paul Fieldhouse (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-61069-412-4.

^ Skog, Jason (2008). Teens in Finland. Capstone. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7565-3405-nine. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98 percentage of all funerals take area in a church. It is commonplace to take pictures of funerals or even videotape them. To Finns, death is part of the cycle of lifestyles, and a funeral is every other special occasion really worth remembering. In truth, in the course of All Hallow’s Eve and Christmas Eve, cemeteries are referred to as valomeri, or seas of light. Finns go to cemeteries and mild candles in remembrance of the deceased.

^ “All Hallows Eve Service” (PDF). Duke University. 31 October 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2014. About All Hallows Eve: Tonight is the eve of All Saints Day, the competition within the Church that recollects the faith and witness of the ladies and men who’ve come earlier than us. The provider celebrates our persevering with communion with them, and memorializes the these days deceased. The early church observed the Jewish custom that a brand new day began at sundown; consequently, feasts and festivals inside the church were determined starting the night time earlier than.

^ “The Christian Observances of Halloween”. National Republic. 15: 33. five May 2009. Among the European international locations the beautiful custom of lighting fixtures candles for the dead turned into continually part of the “All Hallow’s Eve” competition.

^ Hynes, Mary Ellen (1993). Companion to the Calendar. Liturgy Training Publications. p. one hundred sixty. ISBN 978-1-56854-011-5. In most of Europe, Halloween is strictly a spiritual event. Sometimes in North America the church’s traditions are lost or pressured.

^ Kernan, Joe (30 October 2013). “Not so spooky in spite of everything: The roots of Halloween are tamer than you suspect”. Cranston Herald. Archived from the authentic on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015. By the early twentieth century, Halloween, like Christmas, was commercialized. Pre-made costumes, decorations and special candy all became to be had. The Christian origins of the holiday were downplayed.

^ Braden, Donna R.; Village, Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield (1988). Leisure and leisure in America. Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village. ISBN 978-zero-933728-32-five. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Halloween, a holiday with non secular origins however increasingly secularized as celebrated in America, got here to expect essential proportions as a children’s festivity.

^ Santino, p. eighty five

^ All Hallows’ Eve (Diana Swift), Anglican Journal

^ Mahon, Bríd (1991). Land of Milk and Honey: The Story of Traditional Irish Food & Drink. Poolbeg Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-85371-142-eight. The vigil of the dinner party is Halloween, the night time while charms and incantations had been powerful, when people seemed into the destiny, and whilst feasting and merriment were ordained. Up to current time this became an afternoon of abstinence, when in keeping with church ruling no flesh meat become allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts had been a part of the festive fare.

^ Fieldhouse, Paul (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-61069-412-4. Archived from the authentic on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017. In Ireland, dishes primarily based on potatoes and other veggies were related to Halloween, as meat changed into forbidden all through the Catholic vigil and speedy leading as much as All Saint’s Day.

^ “Online Etymology Dictionary: Halloween”. Etymonline.com. Archived from the original on sixteen October 2013. Retrieved thirteen October 2013.

^ The A to Z of Anglicanism (Colin Buchanan), Scarecrow Press, p. eight

^ Luck, Steve (22 October 1998). The American Desk Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-zero-19-521465-nine.

^ a b The Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. 1989. ISBN 978-0-19-861186-eight.

^ “E’EN, Een, n. Evening”. Scottish National Dictionary.

^ “DOST: Hallow Evin”. Dsl.ac.united kingdom. Archived from the authentic on 29 April 2014. Retrieved thirteen October 2013.

^ Anglo-Saxon Spirituality: Selected Writings (Robert Boenig), Paulist Press, p. 7

^ Santino, Jack. The Hallowed Eve: Dimensions of Culture in a Calendar Festival of Northern Ireland. University Press of Kentucky, p. ninety five

^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). “Samhain and the Celtic Origins of Halloween”. Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. eleven–21. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-eight.

^ “How Halloween Traditions Are Rooted in the Ancient Pagan Festival of Samhain”. Time. Retrieved four December 2019.

^ A Pocket Guide To Superstitions of the British Isles (Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd; Reprint edition: four November 2004) ISBN zero-14-051549-6

^ All Hallows’ Eve Archived 3 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine BBC. Retrieved 31 October 2011.

^ Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An encyclopaedia of the Irish people culture. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p. 402

^ a b c Hutton, Ronald. The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press, 1996. pp. 365–369

^ a b Monaghan, Patricia. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing, 2004. p. 407

^ Hutton, p. 361

^ Monaghan, p. forty one

^ O’Halpin, Andy. Ireland: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford University Press, 2006. p. 236

^ Monaghan, Patricia (2014). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase publishing. p. 167.

^ Monaghan, Patricia (1 January 2009). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-4381-1037-0. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015. They had been both reputable and feared. “Their backs towards us, their faces faraway from us, and might God and Mary store us from harm,” turned into a prayer spoken each time one ventured near their dwellings.

^ Santino, p. 105

^ Danaher, Kevin (1972). The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs. p. 200

^ Evans-Wentz, Walter (1911). The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. p. forty four.

^ McNeill, F. Marian (1961). The Silver Bough, Volume 3. p. 34.

^ “Halloween”. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. Credo Reference. Web. 21 September 2012.

^ a b McNeill, The Silver Bough, Volume 3, pp. eleven–46

^ a b c Miles, Clement A. (1912). Christmas in Ritual and Tradition. Chapter 7: All Hallow Tide to St Martin’s Day Archived four November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.

^ Hutton, p. 379

^ a b Hutton, p. 380

^ Danaher, Kevin. “Irish Folk Tradition and the Celtic Calendar”. InThe Celtic Consciousness, ed. Robert O’Driscoll. New York: Braziller, 1981. pp. 218–227

^ Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Chapter sixty three, Part 1: On the Fire-festivals in preferred Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.

^ MacCulloch, John Arnott (1911). The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Chapter 18: Festivals Archived 12 October 2013 on the Wayback Machine.

^ Hutton, pp. 366, 380

^ “Halloween traditions”. Welsh Government. 2016. Archived from the unique on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017.

^ Rosinsky, Natalie M. (1 July 2002). Halloween. Capstone. p. 8. ISBN 978-zero-7565-0392-five. Christian leaders made antique Celtic and Roman customs into new Christian ones. Bonfires have been as soon as lighted towards evil spirits. Now, they saved away the devil.

^ MacDonald, Sarah; Service, Catholic News (19 October 2017). “From turnips to potatoes to pumpkins: Irish folklife professional says Jack-O-Lanterns started out in Ireland”.

^ a b McNeill, F. Marian. Hallowe’en: its beginning, rites and ceremonies within the Scottish tradition. Albyn Press, 1970. pp. 29–31

^ a b c d e f g h i j Hutton, pp. 379–383

^ Hole, Christina. British Folk Customs. Hutchinson, 1976. p. ninety one

^ Peddle, S. V. (2007). Pagan Channel Islands: Europe’s Hidden Heritage. p. fifty four

^ Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Volume 2. 1855. pp. 308–309

^ Palmer, Kingsley. Oral folk-tales of Wessex. David & Charles, 1973. pp. 87–88

^ Wilson, David Scofield. Rooted in America: Foodlore of Popular Fruits and Vegetables. Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1999. p. 154

^ Beth Allison Barr (28 October 2016). “Guess what? Halloween is more Christian than Pagan – The Washington Post”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2018. It is the medieval Christian festivals of All Saints’ and All Souls’ that offer our firmest foundation for Halloween. From emphasizing dead souls (both excellent and evil), to decorating skeletons, lighting fixtures candles for processions, constructing bonfires to ward off evil spirits, organizing network feasts, or even encouraging carnival practices like costumes, the medieval and early cutting-edge traditions of “Hallowtide” suit nicely with our contemporary holiday.

^ a b Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. 22, 27. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN zero-19-516896-8.

^ New Proclamation Commentary on Feasts, Holy Days, and Other Celebrations (Bill Doggett, Gordon W. Lathrop), Fortress Press, p. 92

^ Hallowe’en, A Christian Name with Blended Christian & Folk Traditions (Thomas L. Weitzel), Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

^ Holy Women, Holy Men: Celebrating the Saints. Church Publishing, Inc. 2010. p. 662. ISBN 978-zero-89869-678-three.

^ Saunders, William. “All Saints and All Souls”. catholiceducation.org. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.

^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “All Saints, Festival of” . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

^ “All Saints’ Day”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, third version, ed. E. A. Livingstone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 41–forty two; The New Catholic Encyclopedia, eo.loc.

^ a b c Hutton, p. 364

^ a b MacCulloch, John Arnott (1911). The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Chapter 10: The Cult of the Dead Archived 29 October 2015 on the Wayback Machine.

^ Butler’s Saint for the Day (Paul Burns), Liturgical Press, p. 516

^ Arising from Bondage: A History of the Indo-Caribbean People (Ron Ramdin), New York University Press, p. 241

^ The World Review – Volume four, University of Minnesota, p. 255

^ Rogers, Nicholas (2001). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–30. ISBN 978-0-19-514691-2.

^ a b c d e “Halloween”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.

^ a b Hutton, pp. 374–375

^ a b Mary Mapes Dodge, ed. (1883). St. Nicholas Magazine. Scribner & Company. p. 93. ‘Soul-desserts,’ which the rich gave to the bad on the Halloween season, in go back for which the recipients prayed for the souls of the givers and their pals. And this tradition became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long term, it was a normal observance within the u . s . cities of England for small corporations to move from parish to parish, begging soul-desserts by making a song beneath the windows a few such verse as this: ‘Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!’

^ DeMello, Margo (2012). A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. ABC-CLIO. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-59884-617-1. Trick-or-treating began as souling an English and Irish tradition wherein the terrible, wearing mask, would move door to door and beg for soul desserts in change for humans’s useless family.

^ Cleene, Marcel. Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. Man & Culture, 2002. p. 108. Quote: “Soul cakes have been small desserts baked as meals for the deceased or offered for the salvation of their souls. They have been therefore presented at funerals and feasts of the lifeless, laid on graves, or given to the terrible as representatives of the dead. The baking of those soul cakes is a established practice”.

^ Levene, Alysa (15 March 2016). Cake: A Slice of History. Pegasus Books. p. forty four. ISBN 978-1-68177-108-three. Like the perennial favourites, warm go buns; they were frequently marked with a go to suggest that they have been baked as alms.

^ The Two Gentlemen of Verona Act 2, Scene 1.

^ Prince Sorie Conteh (2009). Traditionalists, Muslims, and Christians in Africa: Interreligious Encounters and Dialogue. Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-60497-596-3. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2011.

^ Bannatyne, Lesley (31 August 1998). Halloween. Pelican Publishing Company. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4556-0553-8. Villagers had been additionally recommended to masquerade in this day, no longer to frighten unwelcome spirits, but to honor Christian saints. Poor churches couldn’t find the money for genuine relics and instead had processions wherein parishioners dressed as saints, angels and devils. It served the new church through giving an acceptable Christian basis to the custom of dressing up on Halloween.

^ Morrow, Ed (2001). The Halloween Handbook. Kensington Publishing Corporation. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8065-2227-2. Another contributor to the custom of dressing up at Halloween became the antique Irish exercise of marking All Hallows’ Day with spiritual pageants that recounted biblical occasions. These have been not unusual in the course of the Middle Ages all throughout Europe. The featured gamers dressed as saints and angels, however there have been additionally plenty of roles for demons who had greater amusing, capering, appearing devilish, and gambling to the crows. The competition started inside the church, then moved with the aid of procession to the churchyard, in which it persisted long into the night time.

^ “Eve of All Saints”, Using Common Worship: Times and Seasons – All Saints to Candlemas (David Kennedy), Church House Publishing, p. forty two

^ Bannatyne, Lesley. Halloween: An American Holiday, an American History. Pelican Publishing, 1998. p. 9

^ a b Pulliam, June; Fonseca, Anthony J. (26 September 2016). Ghosts in Popular Culture and Legend. ABC-CLIO. p. one hundred forty five. ISBN 978-1-4408-3491-2. Since the sixteenth century, costumes have emerge as a primary a part of Halloween traditions. Perhaps the maximum common conventional Halloween gown is that of the ghost. This is probable because … while Halloween customs started out to be encouraged by way of Catholicism, the incorporation of the subject matters of All Hallows’ and All Souls’ Day would have emphasized visitations from the spirit international over the motifs of spirits and fairies. … The baking and sharing of souls cakes become introduced across the fifteenth century: in a few cultures, the terrible might pass door to door to accumulate them in exchange for praying for the dead (a exercise known as souling), regularly wearing lanterns product of hollowed-out turnips. Around the 16th century, the exercise of going house to house in conceal (a exercise known as guising) to invite for food began and was frequently accompanied by means of recitation of traditional verses (a practice referred to as mumming). Wearing costumes, another lifestyle, has many viable motives, such because it changed into completed to confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from local graveyards to engage in what became called a Danse Macabre, basically a big celebration the various lifeless.

^ a b Rogers, p. fifty seven

^ Carter, Albert Howard; Petro, Jane Arbuckle (1998). Rising from the Flames: The Experience of the Severely Burned. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. a hundred. ISBN 978-zero-8122-1517-five. Halloween, incorporated into the Christian year as the eve of All Saints Day, marked the return of the souls of the departed and the discharge of devils who should move freely on that night. Fires lit on that night time served to save you the impact of such spirits and to offer omens for the destiny. Modern youngsters pass from residence to house at Halloween with flashlights powered with the aid of electric batteries, while jack o’lanterns (perhaps with an actual candle, however frequently with a lightbulb) glow from windows and porches.

^ The Catholic World, Vol. 138: A Monthly Magazine of General Literature and Science. 138. Paulist Press. 1934. And even then, the educated folks of the districts concerned, declared that those fires had been a relic of papistical days when they had been lit at night time to manual the bad souls back to earth.

^ a b Think, Volume 20, International Business Machines Corp., p. 15

^ a b Santino, p. 95

^ Encyclopedia of Observances, Holidays and Celebrations, MobileReference

^ Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works; For the Use of Teachers, Players, and Music Clubs (Edward Baxter Perry), Theodore Presser Company, p. 276

^ Allmand, Christopher (18 June 1998). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 7, c. 1415–c. 1500. Cambridge University Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-521-38296-0. Archived from the unique on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.

^ Books & Culture: A Christian Review. Christianity Today. 1999. p. 12. Archived from the unique on 23 April 2016. Sometimes enacted as at village pageants, the danse macabre became also accomplished as courtroom masques, the courtiers dressing up as corpses from diverse strata of society…both the name and the observance began liturgically as All Hallows’ Eve.

^ Hörandner, Editha (2005). Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo. LIT Verlag Münster. p. ninety nine. ISBN 978-three-8258-8889-three. On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of “antifashion” is also to be determined in a few Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a ‘have to’ with many costumes. Halloween – like the medieval danse macabre – is carefully linked with superstitions and it might be a manner of handling demise in a playful way.

^ The Episcopal Church, its teaching and worship (Latta Griswold), E.S. Gorham, p. a hundred and ten

^ a b Mosteller, Angie (2 July 2014). Christian Origins of Halloween. Rose Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59636-535-3. In Protestant regions souling remained an vital occasion for soliciting food and cash from rich friends in instruction for the coming bloodless and dark months.

^ Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs (Daniel Diehl, Mark Donnelly), Stackpole Books, p. 17

^ Hutton, Ronald (15 February 2001). Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press. pp. 369, 373. ISBN 978-zero-19-157842-7. Fires were indeed lit in England on All Saints’ Day, appreciably in Lancashire, and may well in the end have descended from the identical rites, but had been essentially celebration of a Christian ceremony … households still assembled at the midnight earlier than All Saints’ Day within the early 19th century. Each did so on a hill near its homestead, one person conserving a large bunch of burning straw on the quit of a fork. The rest in a circle round and prayed for the souls of family and buddies until the flames burned out. The writer who recorded this practice delivered that it steadily died out within the latter a part of the century, but that before it were very not unusual and at close by Whittingham such fires might be seen everywhere in the horizon at Hallowe’en. He went on to say that the name ‘Purgatory Field’, determined throughout northern Lancashire, testified to an excellent wider distribution and that the ceremony itself become referred to as ‘Teen’lay’.

^ O’Donnell, Hugh and Foley, Malcolm(2008). “Treat or Trick? Halloween in a Globalising World”. p. 35. Cambridge Scholars Publishing

^ a b Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. 37–38. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN zero-19-516896-8.

^ Trick or Treat: A History of Halloween (Lisa Morton), Reaktion Books, p. 129

^ a b The Halloween Encyclopedia (Lisa Morton), McFarland, p. 9

^ Pumpkin: The Curious History of an American Icon (Cindy Ott), University of Washington Press, p. forty two

^ Halloween: An American Holiday, an American History (Lesley Pratt Bannatyne), Pelican Publishing, p. forty five

^ Encyclopaedia Londinensis, or, Universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and literature, Volume 21 (John Wilkes), R. G. Gunnell and Co., p. 544

^ a b Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. 49–50. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-8.

^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, p. seventy four. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-eight.

^ Morton, Lisa (1 August 2003). The Halloween Encyclopedia. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1524-3.

^ Village Halloween Parade. “History of the Parade”. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.

^ The Encyclopedia of Witches, Witchcraft and Wicca, Infobase Publishing, p. 183

^ Dante’s “Commedia” and the Poetics of Christian Catabasis (Lee Foust), ProQuest, p. 15

^ The Guinness Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits (Rosemary Guiley), Guinness World Records Limited, p. 178

^ Encyclopedia of Death and Dying (Glennys Halloween Howarth, Oliver Leaman), Taylor & Francis, p. 320

^ a b The Oxford associate to American food and drinksp. 269. Oxford University Press, 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2011

^ a b c Leslie, Frank (5 February 2009). Frank Leslie’s famous month-to-month, Volume 40, November 1895, pp. 540–543. Archived from the unique on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.

^ Nathaniel Hawthorne, “The Great Carbuncle”, in Twice-Told Tales, 1837: Hide it [the terrific carbuncle] underneath thy cloak, say’st thou? Why, it’s going to gleam thru the holes, and make thee appear to be a jack-o’-lantern!

^ As past due as 1900, an editorial on Thanksgiving interesting advocated a lit jack-o’-lantern as part of the festivities. “The Day We Celebrate: Thanksgiving Treated Gastronomically and Socially” Archived five August 2016 on the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 24 November 1895, p. 27. “Odd Ornaments for Table” Archived five August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 21 October 1900, p. 12.

^ The Rhetoric of Vision: Essays on Charles Williams (Charles Adolph Huttar, Peter J. Schakel), Bucknell University Press, p. a hundred and fifty five

^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). “Halloween Goes to Hollywood”. Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. 103–124. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-8.

^ A Handbook of Symbols in Christian Art (Gertrude Grace Sill), Simon and Schuster, p. 64

^ In flagrante collecto (Marilynn Gelfman Karp), Abrams, p. 299

^ School Year, Church Year (Peter Mazar), Liturgy Training Publications, p. 115

^ Thomas CrawfordBurns: a take a look at of the poems and songs Crawford, Thomas (1960). Burns: A Study of the Poems and Songs. ISBN 978-0-8047-0055-9. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2018.CS1 maint: bot: authentic URL reputation unknown (hyperlink) Stanford University Press, 1960

^ Simpson, Jacqueline “All Saints’ Day” in Encyclopedia of Death and Dying, Howarth, G. and Leeman, O. (2001)London Routledge ISBN zero-415-18825-three, p. 14 “Halloween is closely associated in folklore with loss of life and the supernatural”.

^ Herberholz, Donald; Herberholz, Barbara (1990). Artworks for Elementary Teachers: Developing Artistic and Perceptual Awareness. W.C. Brown. p. sixteen.

^ Faces Around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face (Margo DeMello), ABC-CLIO, p. 225

^ A Student’s Guide to A2 Performance Studies for the OCR Specification (John Pymm), Rhinegold Publishing Ltd, p. 28

^ Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music, and Art, Volume 1 (Thomas Green), ABC-CLIO p. 566

^ Interacting communities: research on some elements of migration and concrete ethnology (Zsuzsa Szarvas), Hungarian Ethnographic Society, p. 314

^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature (David Scott Kastan), Oxford University Press, p. 47

^ “Mumming Play”, Encyclopædia Britannica

^ Carmichael, Sherman (2012). Legends and Lore of South Carolina. The History Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-60949-748-four. The practice of dressing up and going door to door for treats dates back to the center ages and the exercise of souling.

^ Hood, Karen Jean Matsko (1 January 2014). Halloween Delights. Whispering Pine Press International. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-59434-181-6. The lifestyle continued in some areas of northern England as overdue as the Nineteen Thirties, with youngsters going from door to door “souling” for desserts or money by means of singing a song.

^ a b c d “Ten trick-or-treating records for stunning bonfire chats”. The Irish Times. 31 October 2014. Scotland and Ireland started out tricking: A few many years later a exercise known as ‘guising’ was in complete swing in Scotland and Ireland. Short for ‘disguising’, youngsters could go out from door to door dressed in dress and in place of pledging to hope, they could tell a shaggy dog story, sing a tune or carry out some other type of “trick” in alternate for meals or money. The expression trick or deal with has only been used at front doorways for the final 10 to fifteen years. Before that “Help the Halloween Party” seems to have been the most famous word to holler.

^ a b “Definition of “guising””. Collins English Dictionary. (in Scotland and N England) the practice or custom of disguising oneself in fancy get dressed, regularly with a mask, and journeying human beings’s homes, esp at Halloween

^ Rogers, Nicholas. (2002) “Coming Over:Halloween in North America”. Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. p. 76. Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-514691-three

^ Kelley, Ruth Edna. The Book of Hallowe’en, Boston: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Co., 1919, bankruptcy 15, p. 127. “Hallowe’en in America” Archived 23 April 2016 on the Wayback Machine.

^ Kelley, Ruth Edna. “Hallowe’en in America”. Archived from the unique on 14 October 2013.

^ Theo. E. Wright, “A Halloween Story”, St. Nicholas, October 1915, p. 1144. Mae McGuire Telford, “What Shall We Do Halloween?” Ladies Home Journal, October 1920, p. 135.

^ a b “‘Trick or Treat’ Is Demand”, Herald (Lethbridge, Alberta), 4 November 1927, p. five, dateline Blackie, Alberta, three November

^ For examples, see the websites Postcard & Greeting Card Museum: Halloween Gallery Archived 24 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Antique Hallowe’en Postcards Archived 19 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine, Vintage Halloween Postcards Archived 23 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.

^ “Halloween Pranks Keep Police on Hop”, Oregon Journal (Portland, Oregon), 1 November 1934; and “The Gangsters of Tomorrow”, The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana), 2 November 1934, p. 4. The Chicago Tribune additionally mentioned door-to-door begging in Aurora, Illinois on Halloween in 1934, despite the fact that no longer via the time period ‘trick-or-treating’. “Front Views and Profiles” (column), Chicago Tribune, 3 November 1934, p. 17.

^ Moss, Doris Hudson. “A Victim of the Window-Soaping Brigade?” The American Home, November 1939, p. 48.

^ Bluff Park (Heather Jones Skaggs), Arcadia Publishing, p. 117

^ “Trunk-or-Treat”, The Chicago Tribune

^ Suggested Themes for “Trunks” for Trunk or Treat (Dail R. Faircloth), First Baptist Church of Royal Palm Beach

^ “Trunk or Treat makes a speciality of a laugh, children’s protection”, Desert Valley Times

^ “Trunk or Treat! Halloween Tailgating Grows” (Fernanda Santos), The New York Times

^ Bradley, Michael (24 October 2018). “A very Derry Halloween: a carnival of frights, fireworks and parade”. The Guardian. Retrieved 25 October 2018.

^ Miller, Marian (31 October 1932). “Halloween Jollity Within Reason Need”. The Morning Oregonian. p. 8. Quote: “Trick or deal with?” the youthful mischief-maker will say this night, probably, as he earrings the doorbell of a neighbor.”

^ School Year, Church Year (Peter Mazar), Liturgy Training Publications, p. 114

^ Memento Mori, Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Missouri

^ Beauchemin, Genevieve; CTV.ca News Staff (31 May 2006). “UNICEF to stop Halloween ‘orange field’ software”. CTV. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2006.

^ “History of the Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF Campaign”. UNICEF Canada. 2008. Archived from the unique on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2009.

^ Fadel, Leila (29 October 2019). “Cultural Appropriation, A Perennial Issue On Halloween”. NPR. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2020.

^ Escobar, Sam; Robin, Marci (5 October 2020). “15 Offensive Halloween Costumes That Shouldn’t Exist”. Good Housekeeping. Archived from the original on 13 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.

^ Park, Sumner (2 October 2020). “Pinterest is prohibiting culturally inappropriate Halloween costumes”. Fox News. Archived from the authentic on 22 October 2020. Retrieved sixteen October 2020.

^ Keshner, Andrew (17 October 2018). “Instagram-loving pets owners will spend nearly $500M on animal costumes this Halloween”. MarketWatch. Retrieved 17 October 2018.

^ Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark P. (thirteen April 2011). Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs. Stackpole Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-zero-8117-4430-0. All Hallows’ Eve. A time of non secular unrest, whilst the souls of the lifeless, along with ghosts and evil spirits, had been believed to walk the land. Church bells were run and fires lit to manual those souls on their way and deflect them from haunting honest Christian folk. Barns and homes were blessed to shield people and livestock from the effects of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveld the earth. Although a rare few endured to divine the destiny, solid spells, and tell ghost testimonies in rural groups, woe to absolutely everyone who turned into denounced to the church for accomplishing such activities. These may additionally appear to be harmless fun nowadays, but it changed into deadly serious stuff during the Middle Ages.

^ MacLeod, Sharon. Celtic Myth and Religion. McFarland, 2011. pp. 61, 107

^ “Apple dookers make record strive” Archived 28 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 2 October 2008

^ Danaher, Kevin. The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs. Mercier Press, 1972. pp. 202–205

^ Danaher (1972), p. 223

^ McNeill, F. Marian (1961, 1990) The Silver Bough, Volume III. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-948474-04-1 pp. 11–46

^ Danaher (1972), p. 219

^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough, Volume III, pp. 33–34

^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough, Volume III, p. 34

^ Hollister, Helen (1917). “Halloween Frolics”. Parlor Games for the Wise and Otherwise. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Company. p. 98. Archived from the authentic on eight December 2015.

^ “Vintage Halloween Cards”. Vintage Holiday Crafts. 21 January 2008. Archived from the unique on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.

^ “Preschool Halloween Fast Facts”. www.everythingpreschool.com.

^ “Traditional Irish Halloween games attempt to marry off young women”. IrishCentral.com. 15 October 2018.

^ “Halloween in Irish Folklore identification=”cite_note-190″>^ “Tricks and treats”. Irish Examiner. 30 October 2010.

^ “Amber B + Element Skateboards + Colette = Rad!”. Sneaker Freaker.

^ “Clay”. www.cliffsnotes.com.

^ Madden, Ed (31 October 2008). “Teaching Joyce”. James Joyce Quarterly. forty six (1): 133. doi:10.1353/jjq.zero.1/3. S2CID 201751292 – via Project MUSE.

^ Attridge, Derek; Attridge, Professor of English Derek (sixteen March 2000). Joyce Effects: On Language, Theory, and History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77788-nine – through Google Books.

^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough Volume III, p. 34

^ Greg Ryan (17 September 2008). “A Model of Mayhem”. Hudson Valley Magazine. Archived from the authentic on eleven May 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2008.

^ Warner, Adam (27 October 2014). “The History of Haunted Houses: A Fight for Frights as Tastes Change”. NBC Bay Area. Archived from the authentic on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2017.

^ McKendry, Bekah (March 2014). “The History of Haunted Houses!”. America Haunts. Archived from the unique on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.

^ Morton, Lisa (28 September 2012). Trick or Treat: A History of Halloween (paperback). United Kingdom: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78023-047-4.

^ Surrell, Jason (11 August 2009). Haunted Mansion: From The Magic Kingdom To The Movies (paperback). Disney Editions. ISBN 978-1-4231-1895-4.

^ Celestino, Mike (28 September 2016). “Knott’s Scary Farm stays the perfect Southern California Halloween topic park occasion for the 2016 season”. Inside The Magic. Distant Creations Group, LLC. Archived from the unique on 30 September 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2017.

^ Lum, Kathryn Gin (30 October 2014). “These evangelical haunted houses are designed to show sinners that they’re going to hell”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2017.

^ “Classic Haunts From Cincinnati’s Past”. House of Doom. 2012. Archived from the authentic on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2017.

^ “A757914”. Catalog of Copyright Entries. Third Series. 30: xliii. July–December 1976. ISSN 0041-7815. Retrieved 22 July 2017.

^ Gruson, Lindsey (19 May 1984). “Blaze Fatal to 8 Linked to Lighter”. The New York Times. Archived from the unique on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2006.

^ “Fires in History: The Haunted Castle”. Archived from the unique on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.

^ “8 Killed via Smoky Fire in Park’s ‘Haunted Castle'”. The Washington Post. 12 May 1984. Archived from the authentic on 13 August 2017.

^ “The Haunted Castle, Revisited – NFPA Journal”. nfpa.org. Archived from the authentic on 13 August 2017. Retrieved nine August 2017.

^ “Spooky and Safe”. nfpa.org. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved nine August 2017.

^ “Horror in a Haunted Castle” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.

^ Barnes, Brooks (25 October 2011). “The Real Scare Is Not Being Scary”. The New York Times. Archived from the authentic on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.

^ Munarriz, Rick Aristotle (23 October 2014). “Halloween Is Raking in Scary Profits for Theme Parks”. AOL.com/Finance. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.

^ Mader, Isabel (30 September 2014). “Halloween Colcannon”. Simmer Magazine. Archived from the authentic on 5 October 2014. Retrieved three October 2014. All Hallow’s Eve turned into a Western (Anglo) Christian holiday that revolved round commemorating the useless the use of humor to intimidate demise itself. Like all vacations, All Hallow’s Eve involved traditional treats. The church endorsed an abstinence from meat, which created many vegetarian dishes.

^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). “Razor in the Apple: Struggle for Safe and Sane Halloween, c. 1920–1990”, Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. 78–102. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN zero-19-516896-eight.

^ “Urban Legends Reference Pages: Pins and Needles in Halloween Candy”. Snopes.com. Retrieved 31 October 2008.

^ Nixon, Robin (27 October 2010). “Poisoned Halloween Candy: Trick, Treat or Myth? – LiveScience”. LiveScience.com. Archived from the authentic on eleven January 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2011.

^ a b “Top ten Irish Halloween traditions and memories you can share”. Ireland Central. Retrieved 23 October 2018.

^ Bannatyne, Lesley Pratt (1 August 1998). Halloween: An American Holiday, an American History. Pelican Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-56554-346-1. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2012. Polish Catholics taught their children to pray out loud as they walked through the woods so that the souls of the useless may want to listen them and be comforted. Priests in tiny Spanish villages nevertheless ring their church bells to remind parishioners to honor the useless on All Hallows Eve.

^ Feasting and Fasting: Canada’s Heritage Celebrations (Dorothy Duncan), Dundurn, p. 249

^ Latina and Latino Voices in Literature (Frances Ann Day), Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 72

^ “BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows’ Eve”. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on three November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. All Hallows’ Eve falls on 31st October every yr, and is the day before All Hallows’ Day, also referred to as All Saints’ Day within the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows’ Eve whilst worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself.

^ Dr. Andrew James Harvey (31 October 2012). “‘All Hallows’ Eve'”. The Patriot Post. Archived from the authentic on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2011. “The vigil of the hallows” refers to the prayer carrier the night earlier than the party of All Hallows or Saints Day. Or “Halloween” for short – a fixture on the liturgical calendar of the Christian West for the reason that 7th century.

^ “Vigil of All Saints”. Catholic News Agency. 31 October 2012. Archived from the unique on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2011. The Vigil is based on the monastic office of Vigils (or Matins), when the clergymen would get up within the nighttime to pray.On major dinner party days, they might have an prolonged carrier of readings (scriptural, patristic, and from lives of the saints) in addition to chanting the psalms.This all would be completed in the dark, of path, and turned into an possibility to pay attention carefully to the Word of God in addition to the phrases of the Church Fathers and tremendous saints.The Vigil of All Saints is an variation of this ancient exercise, the usage of the canonical workplace of Compline on the give up.

^ “Night of Light Beginnings”. Cor et Lumen Christi Community. Archived from the unique on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2012. In its first 12 months – 2000 AD – over 1000 human beings participated from several nations. This blanketed special All Saints Vigil masses, extended durations of Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and events for children. In our 2d 12 months 10,000 participated. Since those modest beginnings, the Night of Light has been adopted in many nations around the sector with substantial numbers concerned every yr from a Cathedral in India to a convent in New Zealand; from Churches inside the US and Europe to Africa; in Schools, church buildings, houses and church halls all ages have were given concerned. Although it started in the Catholic Church it has been taken up by other Christians who even as maintaining its essentials have adapted it to in shape their own traditions.

^ “Here’s to the Soulcakers going approximately their mysterious mummery”. The Telegraph. 6 November 2010. Archived from the unique on three April 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2012. One that has grown over the past decade is the so-known as Night of Light, on All Hallows’ Eve, October 31. It was invented in 2000, in leafy Chertsey, Surrey, whilst possibly 1,000 people took component. Now it’s miles a international movement, famous in Africa and the USA.

The heart of the Night of Light is an all-night vigil of prayer, however there’s room for children’s a laugh too: candies, perhaps a bonfire and dressing up as St George or St Lucy. The minimal gesture is to position a lighted candle in the window, that’s in itself too exciting for a few proponents of health and protection. The inventor of the Night of Light is Damian Stayne, the founding father of a year-spherical spiritual network called Cor et Lumen Christi – coronary heart and light of Christ. This new motion is Catholic, orthodox and charismatic – emphasising the paintings of the Holy Spirit.

^ Armentrout, Donald S.; Slocum, Robert Boak (1999). An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 7. ISBN 978-zero-89869-211-2. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2012. The BOS notes that “suitable festivities and entertainments” can also precede of observe the carrier, and there may be a go to to a cemetery or burial place.

^ Infeld, Joanna (1 December 2008). In-Formation. D & J Holdings LLC. p. one hundred fifty. ISBN 978-zero-9760512-4-4. Retrieved 1 November 2012. My oldsters are Polish and that they have a good time Halloween in a exclusive way. It is time to recall your dead and visit the cemetery and graves of your loved ones.

^ Teens in Finland (Jason Skog), Capstone, p. 61

^ “Bishop Challenges Supermarkets to Lighten up Halloween”. The Church of England. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2009. Christianity wishes to make clear its fine message for younger humans. It’s high time we reclaimed the Christian factors of Halloween,” says the Bishop, explaining the historical past to his letter.

^ “Halloween and All Saints Day”. newadvent.org. n.d. Archived from the original on 16 October 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2006.

^ The Anglican Breviary. Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation. 1955. pp. 1514 (E494). Archived from the unique on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2015.

^ “Reformation Day: What, Why, and Resources for Worship”. The General Board of Discipleship of The United Methodist Church. 21 October 2005. Archived from the unique on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2006.

^ Halloween, Hallowed Is Thy Name (Smith), p. 29

^ Allen, Travis (2011). “Christians and Halloween”. Church Publishing, Inc. Archived from the unique on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Other Christians will choose Halloween alternatives referred to as ‘Harvest Festivals’, ‘Hallelujah Night’ or ‘Reformation Festivals’ – the children dress up as farmers, Bible characters, or Reformation heroes.

^ Halloween tracts serve as device to spread gospel to children (Curry), Baptist Press

^ Woods, Robert (2013). Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-313-38654-1. Evangelicals have found possibilities with both Christmas and Easter to apply Christian candy to re-inject faith into these traditionally Christian holidays and boldly reclaim them as their very own. They have more and more began to use Halloween, the most sweet-centric vacation, as an opportunity for evangelism. Contained in small programs providing Bible verses, Scripture Candy’s “Harvest Seeds” – candy corn in everything however name – are among many candies created for this purpose.

^ D’Augostine, Lori (20 September 2013). “Suffer Not the Trick-or-Treaters”. CBN. Archived from the unique on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.

^ Halloween: What’s a Christian to Do? (1998) by means of Steve Russo.

^ Gyles Brandreth, “The Devil is gaining floor” The Sunday Telegraph (London), 11 March 2000.

^ “Salem ‘Saint Fest’ restores Christian message to Halloween”. rcab.org. n.d. Archived from the original on 29 September 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2006.

^ “Feast of Samhain/Celtic New Year/Celebration of All Celtic Saints 1 November”. All Saints Parish. n.d. Archived from the unique on 20 November 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006.

^ Portaro, Sam (25 January 1998). A Companion to the Lesser Feasts and Fasts. Cowley Publications. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-4616-6051-four. All Saints’ Day is the center-piece of an autumn triduum. In the carnival celebrations of All Hallows’ Eve our ancestors used the most effective weapon in the human arsenal, the power of humor and ridicule to confront the power of loss of life. The following day, inside the commemoration of All Saints, we gave witness to the victory of incarnate goodness embodied in first rate deeds and doers triumphing over the misanthropy of darkness and devils. And in the commemoration of All Souls we proclaimed the desire of commonplace mortality expressed in our aspirations and expectancies of a shared eternity.

^ “Halloween’s Christian Roots” AmericanCatholic.org. Retrieved 24 October 2007.

^ Bucci, Rich (2016). “Catholic Elementary Schools to Celebrate Halloween with Costume Parades on Friday, October 28 & Monday, October 31”. The Catholic Schools of Broome County. Retrieved 2 October 2018.

^ Suarez, Essdras (29 October 2007). “Some Christians use ‘Hell Houses’ to reach out on Halloween”. USA Today. Retrieved 7 November 2015. While a few Christians aren’t certain what to make of Halloween – uncertain whether to embody or ignore all the goblins and ghoulishness – a few evangelical church buildings use Oct. 31 as an afternoon to evangelize. …Some use trick-or-treating as an evangelistic possibility, giving out Bible tracts with candy.

^ “‘Trick?’ or ‘Treat?’ – Unmasking Halloween”. The Restored Church of God. n.d. Archived from the authentic on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2007.

^ Do Orthodox Christians Observe Halloween? via Saint Spyridon Greek Orthodox Church

^ The Jewish Life Cycle: rites of passage from biblical to fashionable instances (Ivan G. Marcus), University of Washington Press, p. 232

^ “Jews and Halloween”. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Archived from the authentic on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2013.

^ A Jewish exploration of halloween Archived 31 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine The Jewish Journal

^ A. Idris Palmer, Halloween: Through Muslim Eyes (PDF), Al Huda Institute Canada, archived from the unique (PDF) on 4 November 2009, retrieved St Martin’s Day 2015

^ “Halloween is ‘haram,’ announces Malaysia fatwa council”. Al Arabiya English. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2020.

^ Tuesday, 28 October 2014 11:forty one AM MYT. “Trick or treat Malay Mail”. www.malaymail.com. Retrieved 15 October 2020.

^ “Fatawa – Is it forbidden for Muslims to have a good time days inclusive of valentine’s day and halloween?”. Dar al-Ifta al Misriyyah. Retrieved 15 October 2020.

^ Lauren Stengele (25 October 2012), Halloween in India?, Vision Nationals, archived from the authentic on 8 December 2015, retrieved St Martin’s Day 2015

^ Vineet Chander (30 October 2009), Trick or Treat? Not quite sure., Beliefnet, archived from the authentic on 8 December 2015, retrieved Martinmas 2015

^ Soumya Dasgupta (five November 2009), “Should Indians Celebrate Foreign Festivals Like Halloween?”, The Wall Street Journal, archived from the authentic on 20 June 2015

^ a b George, Stephanie (25 October 2010). “Real-lifestyles witches that don’t have fun Halloween”. The Manitoban. Archived from the unique on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.

^ Should Pagans Celebrate Halloween? (Wicasta Lovelace), Pagan Centric

^ Halloween, From a Wiccan/Neopagan attitude (B.A. Robinson), Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance

^ Halloween hearth calls ‘each 90 seconds’ Archived 2 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine UTV News Retrieved 22 November 2010

^ McCann, Chris (28 October 2010). “Halloween firework injuries are at the growth”. The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 22 November 2010.

^ “Kalan -Goañv ha Marv”. Tartanplace.com. 12 July 2001. Archived from the authentic on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2012.

^ “¿Cómo se introduce los angeles fiesta de Halloween en Chile?”. noticias.universia.cl. Archived from the unique on 12 October 2016. Retrieved eleven October 2016.

^ Paul Kent (27 October 2010). “Calls for Halloween holiday in Australia”. Herald Sun. Retrieved 7 October 2013.

^ Denton, Hannah (30 October 2010). “Safe treats for kids on 12 months’s scariest night”. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 November 2010.

^ “Usein kysyttyä (FAQ)” (in Finnish). Helsingin yliopiston almanakkatoimisto. Retrieved 28 September 2020.

^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, p. 164. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN zero-19-516896-eight

^ How do Filipinos Celebrate the Halloween? (Emie), Hubpages

^ Trinidad, Karen. “Tagalog fairs – Araw ng Patay”. The authorities of Camarines Sur. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013.

Further readingDiane C. Arkins, Halloween: Romantic Art and Customs of Yesteryear, Pelican Publishing Company (2000). ninety six pages. ISBN 1-56554-712-8

Diane C. Arkins, Halloween Merrymaking: An Illustrated Celebration Of Fun, Food, And Frolics From Halloweens Past, Pelican Publishing Company (2004). 112 pages. ISBN 1-58980-113-X

Lesley Bannatyne, Halloween: An American Holiday, An American History, Facts on File (1990, Pelican Publishing Company, 1998). 180 pages. ISBN 1-56554-346-7

Lesley Bannatyne, A Halloween Reader. Stories, Poems and Plays from Halloweens Past, Pelican Publishing Company (2004). 272 pages. ISBN 1-58980-176-8

Phyllis Galembo, Dressed for Thrills: a hundred Years of Halloween Costumes and Masquerade, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (2002). 128 pages. ISBN 0-8109-3291-1

Editha Hörandner (ed.), Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo, Volkskunde (Münster in Westfalen), LIT Verlag Münster (2005). 308 pages. ISBN 3-8258-8889-4

Lisa Morton, Trick or Treat A history of Halloween, Reaktion Books (2012). 229 pages. ISBN 978-1-78023-187-7

Lisa Morton, The Halloween Encyclopedia, McFarland & Company (2003). 240 pages. ISBN zero-7864-1524-X

Nicholas Rogers, Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, Oxford University Press, US (2002). ISBN 0-19-514691-3

Jack Santino (ed.), Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life, University of Tennessee Press (1994). 280 pages. ISBN zero-87049-813-4

David J. Skal, Death Makes a Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween, Bloomsbury US (2003). 224 pages. ISBN 1-58234-305-five

James Tipper, Gods of The Nowhere: A Novel of Halloween, Waxlight Press (2013). 294 pages. ISBN 978-0-9882433-1-6External linksHalloween at Curlie

“A short history of Halloween” with the aid of the BBC

“The History of Halloween” via the History Channelvte

Holidays, observances, and celebrations within the United States

January

New Year’s Day (federal)

Martin Luther King Jr. Day (federal)Birthday of Eugenio María de Hostos (PR)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX)

Eve of Three Kings’ Day (PR, non secular)

Feast of Epiphany / Feast of Theophany (religious)

Fred Korematsu Day (CA, FL, HI, VA)

Idaho Human Rights Day (ID)

Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial)

Kansas Day (KS)

Makar Sankranti / Pongal (non secular)

Robert E. Lee Day (FL)

Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36)

The Eighth (LA)

Three Kings’ Day (PR, VI, spiritual)

World Religion Day (spiritual)January–February

Super Bowl SundayChinese New Year / Lunar New Year (NY, cultural, non secular)

Vasant Panchami (spiritual)FebruaryAmerican Heart MonthBlack History Month

Washington’s Birthday (federal)

Valentine’s DayBirthday of Luis Muñoz Marín (PR)

Candlemas (spiritual)

Charles Darwin Day / Darwin Day (CA, DE)

Day of Remembrance (CA, OR, WA, cultural)

Georgia Day (GA)

Groundhog Day

Imbolc (spiritual)

Lincoln’s Birthday (CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NY, WV)

National Girls and Women in Sports Day

National Freedom Day (36)

Nirvana Day (non secular)

Presentation of Our Lord to the Temple (spiritual)

Promised Reformer Day (religious)

Ronald Reagan Day (CA)

Rosa Parks Day (CA, MO)

Saviours’ Day (religious)

Susan B. Anthony Day (CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

Tu B’shvat (spiritual)February–March

Mardi GrasAsh Wednesday (PR, religious)

Carnival (PR, VI, religious)

Clean Monday (religious)

Courir de Mardi Gras (religious)

Intercalary Days (non secular)

Mahashivaratri (non secular)

Purim (spiritual)

Shrove Tuesday (spiritual)

Super TuesdayMarchIrish-American Heritage MonthColon Cancer Awareness MonthWomen’s History Month

Saint Patrick’s Day (non secular)

Spring wreck (week)Annunciation of the Virgin Mary / Annunciation of the Theotokos (non secular)

Casimir Pulaski Day (IL)

Cesar Chavez Day (CA, CO, TX, proposed federal)

Emancipation Day in Puerto Rico (PR, cultural)

Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA)

Harriet Tubman Day (NY)

Hola Mohalla (religious)

Holi (NY, spiritual)

L. Ron Hubbard’s Birthday (religious)

Lailat al-Mi’raj (religious)

Liberation and Freedom Day (Charlottesville, VA, cultural)

Mardi Gras (AL (in two counties), LA)

Maryland Day (MD)

National Poison Prevention Week (week)

Nowruz (cultural, religious)

Ostara (religious)

Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI)

Promised Messiah Day (non secular)

Saint Joseph’s Day (spiritual)

Seward’s Day (AK)

Texas Independence Day (TX)

Town Meeting Day (VT)

Transfer Day (VI)March–April

Easter (non secular)Good Friday (CT, NC, PR, NJ, VI, spiritual)

Hanuman Jayanti (spiritual)

Holy Thursday (PR, VI, non secular)

Holy Week (PR, non secular, week)

Lazarus Saturday (non secular)

Mahavir Janma Kalyanak (non secular)

Mesha Sankranti / Hindu New Year (religious)

Palm Sunday (PR, spiritual)

Passover (non secular)

Easter Monday / Bright Monday (VI spiritual)

Ramnavami (spiritual)

Chandramana Yugadi / Souramana Yugadi (non secular)AprilConfederate History Month

420

April Fools’ Day

Arbor Day

Birthday of José de Diego (PR)

Confederate Memorial Day (AL, MS)

Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (week)

Earth Day

Emancipation Day (cultural)

Thomas Jefferson’s Birthday (AL)

Lag B’Omer (non secular)

Last Friday of Great Lent (religious)

Laylat al-Qadr (religious)

Pascua Florida (FL)

Patriots’ Day (MA, ME)

Ridván (spiritual)

San Jacinto Day (TX)

Siblings Day

Walpurgis Night (non secular)

Yom Ha’atzmaut (cultural, religious)

MayAsian Pacific American Heritage MonthJewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day (federal)

Mother’s Day (36)

Cinco de MayoAscension of Baháʼu’lláh (spiritual)

Ascension of Our Lord (non secular)

Caliphate Day (spiritual)

Declaration of the Bab (non secular)

Harvey Milk Day (CA)

International Workers’ Day / May Day (CA, unofficial, proposed kingdom)

Law Day (36)

Loyalty Day (36)

Malcolm X Day (CA, IL, proposed federal)

Military Spouse Day

National Day of Prayer (36)

National Day of Reason

National Defense Transportation Day (36)

National Maritime Day (36)

Peace Officers Memorial Day (36)

Pentecost (religious)

Shavuot (spiritual)

Truman Day (MO)

Vesak / Buddha’s Birthday (spiritual)JuneLesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month

Juneteenth (federal, cultural)

Father’s Day (36)Bunker Hill Day (Suffolk County, MA)

Carolina Day (SC)

Fast of the Holy Apostles (non secular)

Flag Day (36, proposed federal)

Helen Keller Day (PA)

Honor America Days (3 weeks)

Jefferson Davis Day (AL, FL)

Kamehameha Day (HI)

Litha (religious)

Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Sahib (spiritual)

Odunde Festival (Philadelphia, PA, cultural)

Senior Week (week)

Saint John’s Day (PR, spiritual)

West Virginia Day (WV)July

Independence Day (federal)Asalha Puja Day (spiritual)

Birthday of Don Luis Muñoz Rivera (PR)

Birthday of Dr. José Celso Barbosa (PR)

Emancipation Day within the U.S. Virgin Islands (VI, cultural)

Guru Purnima (non secular)

Khordad Sal (religious)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial, cultural)

Martyrdom of the Báb (religious)

Parents’ Day (36)

Pioneer Day (UT)

Puerto Rico Constitution Day (PR)July–August

Summer vacationTisha B’Av (spiritual)August

American Family Day (AZ)

Barack Obama Day in Illinois (IL)

Bennington Battle Day (VT)

Dormition of the Theotokos (non secular)

Eid-e-Ghadeer (religious)

Fast in Honor of the Holy Mother of Lord Jesus (spiritual)

Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (spiritual)

Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI)

Krishna Janmashtami (religious)

Lammas (non secular)

Lyndon Baines Johnson Day (TX)

Naga Panchami (non secular)

National Aviation Day (36)

Paryushana (non secular)

Raksha Bandhan (religious)

Transfiguration of the Lord (religious)

Victory Day (RI)

Women’s Equality Day (36)

SeptemberProstate Cancer Awareness MonthChildhood Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day (federal)Brazilian Day (NY, cultural)

California Admission Day (CA)

Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36)

Constitution Day (36)

Constitution Week (week)

Defenders Day (MD)

Elevation of the Holy Cross (spiritual)

Feast of San Gennaro (NY, cultural, religious)

Ganesh Chaturthi (non secular)

Gold Star Mother’s Day (36)

His Holiness Sakya Trizin’s Birthday (spiritual)

Mabon (religious)

National Grandparents Day (36)

National Payroll Week (week)

Nativity of Mary / Nativity of the Theotokos (non secular)

Native American Day (proposed federal)

Patriot Day (36)September–OctoberHispanic Heritage Month

Chehlum Imam Hussain (spiritual)

Oktoberfest

Pitri Paksha (non secular)

Rosh Hashanah / Feast of Trumpets (TX, NY, non secular)

Shemini Atzeret (spiritual)

Simchat Torah (spiritual)

Vijaya Dashami (spiritual)

Yom Kippur / Day of Atonement (TX, NY, non secular)

OctoberBreast Cancer Awareness MonthDisability Employment Awareness Month Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month Filipino American History MonthLGBT History Month

Columbus Day (federal)

HalloweenAlaska Day (AK)

Child Health Day (36)

General Pulaski Memorial Day

German-American Day

Indigenous Peoples’ Day (VT)

International Day of Non-Violence

Leif Erikson Day (36)

Missouri Day (MO)

Nanomonestotse (cultural)

National School Lunch Week (week)

Native American Day in South Dakota (SD)

Nevada Day (NV)

Spirit Day (cultural)

Sweetest Day

Sukkot / Feast of Tabernacles (spiritual)

Virgin Islands–Puerto Rico Friendship Day (PR, VI)

White Cane Safety Day (36)October–November

Birth of the Báb (spiritual)

Birth of Baháʼu’lláh (spiritual)

Day of the Dead (VI)

Diwali (NY, non secular)

Mawlid al-Nabi (spiritual)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day (federal)

Thanksgiving (federal)Ascension of ‘Abdu’l Baha (non secular)

All Saints’ Day (non secular)

Beginning of the Nativity Fast (religious)

Beltane / Samhain (spiritual)

Barack Obama Day in Alabama (Perry County, AL)

D. Hamilton Jackson Day (VI)

Day after Thanksgiving (24)

Day of the Covenant (spiritual)

Discovery of Puerto Rico Day (PR)

Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, VA, WV, proposed federal)

Family Day (NV)

Guru Nanak Gurpurab (religious)

Hanukkah (religious)

Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial, cultural)

Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur (non secular)

Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA, cultural)

Presentation of the Theotokos to the Temple (non secular)

Unthanksgiving Day (cultural)December

Christmas (spiritual, federal)

New Year’s EveAdvent Sunday (religious)

Alabama Day (AL)

Birthday of Guru Gobind Singh Sahib (spiritual)

Bodhi Day (religious)

Chalica (spiritual)

Christmas Eve (KY, NC, SC, PR, VI)

Day after Christmas (KY, NC, SC, TX, VI)

Festivus

HumanLight

Hanukkah (religious, week)

Immaculate Conception (non secular)

Indiana Day (IN)

Kwanzaa (cultural, week)

Milad Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin (spiritual)

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day (36)

Nativity of Jesus (spiritual)

Old Year’s Night (VI)

Pan American Aviation Day (36)

Pancha Ganapati (non secular, week)

Rosa Parks Day (OH, OR)

Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God (non secular)

Wright Brothers Day (36)

Yule (non secular)

Zartosht No-Diso (religious)Varies (12 months round)

Eid al-Adha (NY, religious)

Eid al-Fitr (NY, spiritual)

Islamic New Year (non secular)

Yawm al-Arafa (non secular)

Hajj (religious)

Navaratri (religious, 4 times a 12 months)

Obon (non secular)

Onam (non secular)

Ramadan (spiritual, month)

Ghost Festival (spiritual)

Yawm Aashura (spiritual)

Legend:

(federal) = federal vacations, (abbreviation) = country/territorial holidays, (religious) = spiritual holidays, (cultural) = excursion associated with a specific racial/ethnic organization or sexual minority, (week) = week-long vacations, (month) = month-lengthy vacations, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies

Bold suggests primary holidays normally celebrated inside the United States, which regularly represent the main celebrations of the month.

See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, Public holidays in the United States, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands.

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