Introduction: Apartment Solar System
This is a ‘Green’ and green Instructable which creates a sustainable way SOLAR SYSTEM of living which mixes the use of Solar & BATTERIES. For example, the substances/ components used do no longer consume power inorder to function. Instead it generates Clean Electricity SOLAR SYSTEM from the Sun. No electricity is wanted whilst it is now not in use and in stand-with the aid of mode. The whole circuit is simple to repair, person components may be reused and additionally recycled down the line.
What is a Solar System?
A Solar System is a device which converts mild energy into electrical power, shops this electrical strength and also consumes this stored power.
Unlike Petrol, Solar energy from the Sun is free of fee and you dont pay taxes on it. The charges of fuel will constantly increase, but as production of solar panels boom the price ofthese panels shall lower. You can save the transformed solar electricity in a BATTERY. A solar machine can be assembled in any OUTDOOR WORKSHOP. Solar Energy is a Green Energy, its a Renewable Source of Energy and its desirable for our planet. And so long as the solar shines your gadget will be powered.
Step 1: Things You Will Need
Solar Panel- 12V, 50W or greater – AliExpressLead Acid Battery- 12V, 32Ah or 65Ah or more -https://amzn.to/2DEYZbyCharge Controller and Charge Indicator – AliExpressBattery Connectors (Lugs/ Ring Terminals) – AliExpress2.5mm or 3mm WireInverter- 12VDC to 220VAC, 400W or 600W – AliExpressSwitch Box/ Extension Box – AliExpressPower Consumption Meter – AliExpress2 X Circuit Breaker – AliExpress
Spanner Set – AliExpressSoldering Iron – AliExpressSoldering Wire – AliExpressWire Cutter – AliExpressScrewdriver – AliExpressMultimeter – AliExpressStep 2: Circuit Diagram
Follow the connections inside the circuit diagram. The Red wires are Positive, Black are Negative. The Red wire among the Inverter and Plug Point is Live, Black is Neutral and Green is Ground or Earthing.
Be Careful even as making connections. Do no longer switch whatever ON whilst connecting all of the components and additives.
Do now not interchange the polarity and keep on with the colour coding of the wires- Red, Black & Green.
Cut all of the wires to length the use of the twine cutter and strip the PVC covering of the ends of the wire the usage of the wire stripper.
Step three: Solar Panel Connections
SOLAR SYSTEM IMAGE:
Solar Panel Connections
The Solar Panel is the tool which converts the mild emitted by using the Sun into electrical energy. When the suns rays fall onto the solar cells, the electrons inside the sun cells get excited and start to go with the flow, thus producing electrical power.
Connect the wires to the Solar Panel. Let the Red wire be linked to the advantageous (+) terminal and the black twine to the negative (-) terminal.
Connect the other give up of the crimson wire to the input of the first Circuit Breaker. Connect the alternative give up of the black twine to the input of the second Circuit Breaker.
Tighten the screws of the terminals the usage of a Screwdriver.
The diodes inside the Solar Panel Connection Box are used to preserve the polarity of the solar panel. If the positive twine is attached i the center terminal, the voltage is halfed.
Step 4: Circuit Breaker Connections
Circuit Breaker Connections
The Circuit Breaker is a form of Switch which switches OFF/shuts down/shuts OFF when a positive amount of modern-day passes through it. It will close OFF only when the modern exceeds the given certain amount. E.g: 15A and so on. It additionally shuts OFF when theres a quick circuit. The purpose one MUST join the Circuit Breaker among the sun panel and the rest of the machine is to save you the SOLAR SYSTEM complete device from lightning. Lightning can cause the battery to blow up and also harm the complete device. The Circuit Breaker at once shuts OFF whilst lightning moves the Solar Panel.
Connect the output of the first Circuit Breaker to every other red twine. Connect the other stop of this pink SOLAR SYSTEM cord to the Charge controller.
Connect the output of the second Circuit Breaker to any other black cord. Connect the opposite quit of this black wire to the Charge controller.
Tighten the screws of the terminals the usage of a Screwdriver.
Step five: Charge Controller Connections
Charge Controller Connections.
The Charge Controller is an digital circuit which regulates the charging of the battery and additionally suggests the battery degree. The Charge controller prevents the battery from overcharging. Once the price controller detects that the battery is fully charged it stops charging the battery. The fee controller also makes use of a voltage regulator to regulate the input voltage given from the battery inorder to give a solid constant output voltage. E.g: Consider a 12V soalr panel which is giving 12.5V. The charge controller will regulate and convert the 12.5V into a consistent and stable 12V.
Connect a crimson twine to the output of the fee controller’s fine terminal and join the end of the twine to the nice terminal of the battery.
Connect a black twine to the output of the rate controller’s bad terminal and join the give up of the cord to the bad terminal of the battery.
Tighten the screws of the terminals using a Screwdriver.
Step 6:Battery Connections
Battery Terminal.Red wire connected to the Positive (+) terminal of the battery.
Black twine connected to the Negative (-) terminal of the battery.
The Battery is a tool which shops the electrical energy in the form of chemical energy. A Lead Acid battery incorporates lead acid in it. As the battery is used it releases hydrogen gas.This hydrogen fuel is too little to have an effect on human beings.
Solder the battery connectors to the wires. This will ensure that the cord doesn’t come out and also prevents SOLAR SYSTEM shorting. Connect the battery connectors to the Battery terminal.
Once you’ve got connected the terminals of the battery to the output of the charge controller, you could connect the inverter to the battery terminals too.
Connect one cease of a pink cord to the nice battery terminal and its other end to the high-quality DC terminal of the inverter.
Connect one cease of a black twine to the terrible battery terminal and its different give up to the terrible DC terminal of the inverter.
Step 7: Inverter Connections
Inverter output connections.Cooling Fan of Inverter.
The Inverter is an electronic device which converts a low voltage DC enter into a high voltage AC output. E.g: An inverter can convert 12VDC (from battery) into 220VAC (to appliance). An inverter is vital in case your home equipment run on 220V AC.
The output of an inverter has three terminals namely Live, Neutral and Ground. Connect your Power Consumption Meter to the 3 terminals of the inverters output.
Step eight: Power Meter Connections
Power Meter Connections.Power Meter Connections.Power Meter Readings ( 58KWh ate up).
The electricity intake meter measure the going for walks overall of the quantity of power-hours that have been ate up through the appliances. It is measured in Kilo Watt Hours (KWh).
Connect the output of the energy meter to the Plug point connections.
TEST: Test the sun machine by means of plugging a CFL bulb into the plug point/ socket and spot if it comes on. Make certain the switches are ON and the entirety is hooked up.
Step 9: Calculations & Expanding Your Solar System
Calculations(example calculation): This is an instance. Using the formulas given under large Solar systems with higher capacities can be made. Use these calculations to expand your sun device.
Hence the entire load is 40W.
Backup Time/ Running Time-
Now say you need to run these appliances for four Hours.
The general again up time might be 4 hours.
Wh-Then overall Load x Hour (4hour × 40watt) = 160Wh.
Battery Voltage= 12V & Watt Hour=160Wh
Therefore I= Watt Hour/ Battery Voltage
I=one hundred sixty/12= thirteen.33Ah ~ 14
Generally a battery charging cutting-edge = 10% of its AH Charging cutting-edge = 1.four A ( )
Power (W) = Current (A) X Voltage (V)
Solar panel wanted = 1.4 A12 V = 16.eight W
Charge controller-12 Volt, 1.4 Amp Thus a solar system is calculated
(System loss isn’t always added with this measurement, so approximate 25% machine loss will be delivered.)
Conclusion: So from calculation
1. Solar panel =20 watt (20 watt is to be had)
2. Battery = 12volt, 15AH (15AH, 20AH battery available)
Efficiency of Solar panel: Here output electricity is the energy we get from solar panel. Input electricity is proportional to the amount of mild falling on the solar panel. Hence do now not keep the Panel in shade.
Step 10: Caution, Safety, Things to Remember
Safety Rules written on Battery.Caution and After Use guidelines on Battery.Charging Guide.
While soldering do not touch the end of the soldering iron.Wear Dark Glasses at the same time as installing the Solar Panel.Do no longer look Directly on the Sun.
Keep the battery faraway from sparks, cigarettes, open flames, and so forth. These can end result ion explosions.Do now not throw water near the battery or inverter.Avoid steel touch among the terminals of the battery, as this may reason quick circuiting.Lead Acid batteries generate SOLAR SYSTEM Hydrogen Gas.Do not hit, hammer or harm the battery, it contains lead acid and can leak.Make sure the output of the inverter is grounded/earthed.Do now not block the vents of the cooling fan so as to save you over heating of the inverter. Do now not interchange the polarity of any of the connections.
Things to Remember:
Do now not forget to put in the Circuit Breakers.Do no longer switch the device on till all the connections have been made.The lead acid in the battery ought to be replaced as a minimum once a year.Do now not activate the inverter if the price controller is displaying the ‘Overload’ sign.Always use low intake appliances which includes CFL or LED bulbs.
This battery carries lead acid and sulphuric acid. Do now not just through it within the rubbish as it’s miles risky to the surroundings.At the quit of the battery existence, go back the battery to the approved dealer for disposal.
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