Christmas – Wikipedia


Nativity scene depicted using Christmas lighting

Also calledNoël, Nativity, XmasObserved byChristians, many non-Christians[1][2]TypeChristian, culturalSignificanceCommemoration of the Nativity of JesusCelebrationsGift-giving, own family and other social gatherings, symbolic ornament, feasting etc.ObservancesChurch servicesDateDecember 25: Western Christianity and part of the Eastern church buildings[3]January 7 [O.S. December 25]: Most Oriental Orthodox and a part of the Eastern Orthodox churches.[4][5]January 6: Armenian Apostolic Church,[6][7] the Armenian Evangelical Church, and a few Anabaptists (which includes the Amish).[eight]January 19 [O.S. January 6]: Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem[9]FrequencyAnnualRelated toChristmastide, Christmas Eve, Advent, Annunciation, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord, Nativity Fast, Nativity of Christ, Old Christmas, Yule, St. Stephen’s Day, Boxing Day

Christmas is an annual competition commemorating the delivery of Jesus Christ, discovered frequently on December 25[a] as a spiritual and cultural birthday celebration through billions of human beings round the world.[2][10][eleven] A banquet central to the Christian liturgical yr, it is preceded through the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically within the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night.[12] Christmas Day is a public excursion in a number of the world’s nations,[13][14][15] is celebrated religiously by means of a majority of Christians,[16] as well as culturally via many non-Christians,[1][17] and forms an quintessential part of the vacation season organized round it.

The conventional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated within the New Testament says that Jesus turned into born in Bethlehem, according with messianic prophecies.[18] When Joseph and Mary arrived in the town, the motel had no room and so that they had been supplied a strong in which the Christ Child became quickly born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who then spread the phrase. [19]

Although the month and date of Jesus’ delivery are unknown, the church in the early fourth century constant the date as December 25.[20][21][22] This corresponds to the date of the wintry weather solstice at the Roman calendar.[23] Most Christians celebrate on December 25 inside the Gregorian calendar, which has been adopted nearly universally inside the civil calendars used in nations throughout the arena. However, a part of the Eastern Christian Churches rejoice Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which presently corresponds to January 7 in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, believing that God came into the sector in the form of guy to atone for the sins of humanity, as opposed to understanding Jesus’ specific start date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas.[24][25][26]

The celebratory customs associated in numerous international locations with Christmas have a combination of pre-Christian, Christian, and secular themes and origins.[27] Popular modern-day customs of the holiday consist of gift giving; completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath; Christmas tune and caroling; viewing a Nativity play; an alternate of Christmas cards; church offerings; a special meal; and the display of numerous Christmas decorations, inclusive of Christmas timber, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths, mistletoe, and holly. In addition, numerous carefully related and frequently interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing presents to children during the Christmas season and have their personal body of traditions and lore.[28] Because present-giving and many different elements of the Christmas competition involve heightened financial interest, the vacation has come to be a huge occasion and a key income length for outlets and organizations. The economic impact of Christmas has grown regularly over the last few centuries in lots of areas of the sector.


“Christmas” is a shortened form of “Christ’s mass”. The phrase is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131.[three] Crīst (genitive Crīstes) is from Greek Khrīstos (Χριστός), a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ (מָשִׁיחַ), “Messiah”, that means “anointed”;[29][30] and mæsse is from Latin missa, the celebration of the Eucharist.

The form Christenmas turned into additionally historically used, however is now taken into consideration archaic and dialectal.[31] The term derives from Middle English Cristenmasse, that means “Christian mass”.[32] Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas determined particularly in print, primarily based at the preliminary letter chi (Χ) in Greek Khrīstos (Χριστός), “Christ”, though severa style courses discourage its use.[33] This abbreviation has precedent in Middle English Χρ̄es masse (where “Χρ̄” is an abbreviation for Χριστός).[32]

Other names

In addition to “Christmas”, the holiday has been recognised by way of diverse different names during its records. The Anglo-Saxons cited the feast as “midwinter”,[34][35] or, extra rarely, as Nātiuiteð (from Latin nātīvitās below).[34][36] “Nativity”, which means “delivery”, is from Latin nātīvitās.[37] In Old English, Gēola (Yule) cited the length similar to December and January, which was ultimately equated with Christian Christmas.[38] “Noel” (or “Nowel”) entered English in the past due 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself in the end from the Latin nātālis (diēs) which means “start (day)”.[39]


Gospel in line with Saint Luke Chapter 2, v 1–20

The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke, Joseph and Mary tour from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, and Jesus is born there and laid in a manger.[40] Angels proclaimed him a savior for anybody, and shepherds came to adore him.

Matthew adds that the magi observe a star to Bethlehem to carry gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys much less thanyears old in Bethlehem, however the family flees to Egypt and later returns to Nazareth.[forty one]


The nativity sequences blanketed inside the Gospels of Matthew and Luke caused early Christian writers to indicate numerous dates for the anniversary.[42] Although no date is indicated inside the gospels, early Christians related Jesus to the Sun via using such terms as “Sun of righteousness.”[forty two][43] The Romans marked the iciness solstice on December 25.[23] The first recorded Christmas birthday party become in Rome on December 25, AD 336.[forty four][45] In the third century, the date of the nativity turned into the challenge of remarkable interest. Around AD two hundred, Clement of Alexandria wrote:

There are those who’ve determined not only the 12 months of our Lord’s beginning, but also the day; and that they say that it took place within the twenty eighth year of Augustus, and within the 25th day of [the Egyptian month] Pachon [May 20] … Further, others say that He became born on the 24th or twenty fifth of Pharmuthi [April 20 or 21].[46]

Various factors contributed to the choice of December 25 as a date of birthday celebration: it changed into the date of the winter solstice on the Roman calendar and it became 9 months after March 25, the date of the vernal equinox and a date linked to the idea of Jesus (celebrated because the Feast of the Annunciation).[47]

Christmas performed a position within the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy ran its direction, the prominence of the vacation declined for a few centuries. The feast regained prominence after 800 whilst Charlemagne became crowned emperor on Christmas Day.

In Puritan England, Christmas become banned because it became related to drunkenness and different misbehaviour.[forty eight] It changed into restored as a felony holiday in England in 1660, however remained disreputable within the minds of many human beings. In the early nineteenth century, Christmas festivities and services have become great with the upward push of the Oxford Movement in the Church of England that emphasized the centrality of Christmas in Christianity and charity to the negative,[49] along side Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, and other authors emphasizing own family, children, kind-heartedness, present-giving, and Santa Claus (for Irving),[50] or Father Christmas (for Dickens).[51]

Introduction of the festival

Christmas does now not appear on the lists of fairs given by way of the early Christian writers Irenaeus and Tertullian.[3] Origen and Arnobius both fault the pagans for celebrating birthdays, which indicates that Christmas was now not celebrated in their time.[fifty two] Arnobius wrote after AD 297. The Chronograph of 354 data that a Christmas celebration came about in Rome in 336, eight days earlier than the calends of January.[53]

In the East, the delivery of Jesus changed into celebrated in connection with the Epiphany on January 6.[54][55] This vacation changed into not normally about the nativity, but as a substitute the baptism of Jesus.[56] Christmas become promoted in the East as a part of the revival of Orthodox Christianity that accompanied the loss of life of the pro-Arian Emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. The ceremonial dinner was delivered in Constantinople in 379, in Antioch with the aid of John Chrysostom toward the cease of the fourth century,[55] likely in 388, and in Alexandria inside the following century.[fifty seven]

Solstice date

Mosaic in Mausoleum M inside the pre-fourth-century necropolis below St Peter’s Basilica in Rome, interpreted by means of a few as Jesus represented as Christus Sol (Christ the Sun) .[fifty eight]

Some scholars hold that December 25 changed into the date of the wintry weather solstice inside the Roman calendar.[23][fifty nine] Another pupil writes that “the cult of the Sun in pagan Rome paradoxically did now not have fun the wintry weather solstice nor any of the other region-traumatic days, as one would possibly count on”.[60]A late fourth-century sermon with the aid of Saint Augustine explains why this become a becoming day to rejoice Christ’s nativity: “Hence it is that He became born at the day which is the shortest in our earthly reckoning and from which next days start to boom in period. He, consequently, who bent low and lifted us up selected the shortest day, yet the one whence light starts offevolved to boom.”[61]

Linking Jesus to the Sun become supported by way of numerous Biblical passages. Jesus changed into considered to be the “Sun of righteousness” prophesied by way of Malachi: “Unto you shall the sun of righteousness get up, and healing is in his wings.”[forty three]

Such sun symbolism could help multiple date of birth. An anonymous work referred to as De Pascha Computus (243) linked the idea that introduction started at the spring equinox, on March 25, with the concept or delivery (the word nascor can mean either) of Jesus on March 28, the day of the introduction of the sun within the Genesis account. One translation reads: “O the exquisite and divine windfall of the Lord, that on that day, the very day, on which the sun turned into made, March 28, a Wednesday, Christ have to be born.[3][62]

In the seventeenth century, Isaac Newton, who, coincidentally, changed into born on December 25, argued that the date of Christmas may also have been selected to correspond with the solstice.[sixty three]

Conversely, according to Steven Hijmans of the University of Alberta, “It is cosmic symbolism … which stimulated the Church management in Rome to go with the southern solstice, December 25, as the birthday of Christ, and the northern solstice as that of John the Baptist, supplemented by the equinoxes as their respective dates of thought.”[64]

Calculation hypothesis

The calculation speculation shows that an earlier vacation hung on March 25 have become associated with the Incarnation.[sixty five]Christmas become then calculated as nine months later. The calculation hypothesis became proposed by means of French author Louis Duchesne in 1889.[66][67] In present day times, March 25 is celebrated as Annunciation. This holiday changed into created in the seventh century and became assigned to a date this is nine months earlier than Christmas, further to being the traditional date of the equinox. It is unrelated to the Quartodeciman, which had been forgotten by using this time.[68] Forgotten via anyone besides the Jews, of course, who endured to have a look at Passover; additionally a Quartodeciman dinner party.

Early Christians celebrated the existence of Jesus on a date considered equal to 14 Nisan (Passover) at the neighborhood calendar. Because Passover become hung on the 14th of the month, this banquet is known as the Quartodeciman. All the primary events of Christ’s life, mainly the ardour, had been celebrated on this date. In his letter to the Corinthians, Paul mentions Passover, possibly celebrated consistent with the neighborhood calendar in Corinth.[sixty nine] Tertullian (d. 220), who lived in Latin-speaking North Africa, offers the date of ardour birthday party as March 25.[70] The date of the ardour became moved to Good Friday in a hundred sixty five whilst Pope Soter created Easter by means of reassigning the Resurrection to a Sunday. According to the calculation speculation, the party of the Quartodeciman persisted in some regions and the banquet have become related to Incarnation.

The calculation speculation is considered academically to be “a very well feasible hypothesis”, although now not positive.[71] It was a traditional Jewish notion that first-rate guys have been born and died at the equal day, so lived an entire number of years, without fractions: Jesus was consequently taken into consideration to have been conceived on March 25, as he died on March 25, which was calculated to have coincided with 14 Nisan.[seventy two] A passage in Commentary on the Prophet Daniel (204) by way of Hippolytus of Rome identifies December 25 as the date of the nativity. This passage is generally considered a past due interpellation. But the manuscript includes every other passage, one this is much more likely to be authentic, that gives the ardour as March 25.[73]

In 221, Sextus Julius Africanus (c. a hundred and sixty – c. 240) gave March 25 because the day of introduction and of the theory of Jesus in his regularly occurring records. This conclusion was based on sun symbolism, with March 25 the date of the equinox. As this implies a beginning in December, it’s miles now and again claimed to be the earliest identity of December 25 because the nativity. However, Africanus become no longer such an influential creator that it’s far probable he determined the date of Christmas.[74]

The tractate De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis Domini nostri Iesu Christi et Iohannis Baptistae, pseudepigraphically attributed to John Chrysostom and relationship to the early fourth century,[75][76] additionally argued that Jesus became conceived and crucified at the equal day of the yr and calculated this as March 25.[seventy seven][seventy eight] This nameless tract additionally states: “But Our Lord, too, is born in the month of December … the 8 before the calends of January [25 December] …, But they name it the ‘Birthday of the Unconquered’. Who certainly is so unconquered as Our Lord…? Or, if they say that it’s far the birthday of the Sun, He is the Sun of Justice.”[three]

History of religions speculation

The rival “History of Religions” hypothesis suggests that the Church selected December 25 date to suitable festivities held by using the Romans in honor of the Sun god Sol Invictus.[sixty five] This cult became set up with the aid of Aurelian in 274. An explicit expression of this theory appears in an annotation of uncertain date delivered to a manuscript of a piece via twelfth-century Syrian bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi. The scribe who delivered it wrote:

It become a custom of the Pagans to rejoice on the identical 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries, the Christians also took element. Accordingly, whilst the docs of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this competition, they took suggest and resolved that the actual Nativity should be solemnised on that day.[seventy nine]

In 1743, German Protestant Paul Ernst Jablonski argued Christmas became positioned on December 25 to correspond with the Roman solar excursion Dies Natalis Solis Invicti and become therefore a “paganization” that debased the authentic church.[80] However, it has been additionally argued that, on the contrary, the Emperor Aurelian, who in 274 instituted the holiday of the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, did so partially as an try to supply a pagan importance to a date already essential for Christians in Rome.[eighty one]

Hermann Usener[eighty two] and others[3] proposed that the Christians chose this day as it turned into the Roman ceremonial dinner celebrating the birthday of Sol Invictus. Modern pupil S. E. Hijmans, however, states that “While they had been aware that pagans called at the present time the ‘birthday’ of Sol Invictus, this did no longer problem them and it did now not play any position of their desire of date for Christmas.”[sixty four] Moreover, Thomas J. Talley holds that the Roman Emperor Aurelian positioned a competition of Sol Invictus on December 25 so that you can compete with the developing price of the Christian Church, which had already been celebrating Christmas on that date first.[eighty three] In the judgement of the Church of England Liturgical Commission, the History of Religions speculation has been challenged[84] by a view based on an old lifestyle, in line with which the date of Christmas become fixed at 9 months after March 25, the date of the vernal equinox, on which the Annunciation turned into celebrated.[77]

With regard to a December spiritual feast of the deified Sun (Sol), as distinct from a solstice feast of the start (or rebirth) of the astronomical solar, Hijmans has commented that “whilst the iciness solstice on or round December 25 turned into well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there’s no proof that a non secular birthday celebration of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas”.[eighty five] “Thomas Talley has proven that, despite the fact that the Emperor Aurelian’s determination of a temple to the sun god in the Campus Martius (C.E. 274) probably befell at the ‘Birthday of the Invincible Sun’ on December 25, the cult of the solar in pagan Rome ironically did not have a good time the winter solstice nor any of the other quarter-worrying days, as one would possibly expect.”[86] The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought feedback at the uncertainty approximately the order of precedence among the religious celebrations of the Birthday of the Unconquered Sun and of the birthday of Jesus, stating that the speculation that December 25 become chosen for celebrating the delivery of Jesus on the basis of the notion that his theory happened on March 25 “doubtlessly establishes 25 December as a Christian festival earlier than Aurelian’s decree, which, while promulgated, might have furnished for the Christian banquet each opportunity and venture”.[87]

Relation to concurrent celebrations

Many popular customs related to Christmas evolved independently of the commemoration of Jesus’ start, with a few claiming that positive factors have origins in pre-Christian fairs that had been celebrated through pagan populations who have been later converted to Christianity. The winning atmosphere of Christmas has also usually advanced since the holiday’s inception, ranging from a sometimes raucous, drunken, carnival-like country in the Middle Ages,[88] to a tamer family-oriented and kids-focused subject matter introduced in a nineteenth-century transformation.[89][ninety] The celebration of Christmas become banned on multiple event inside certain organizations, including the Puritans and Jehovah’s Witnesses (who do now not have fun birthdays in widespread), due to concerns that it was too unbiblical.[ninety one][forty eight][ninety two]

Prior to and thru the early Christian centuries, wintry weather fairs were the most famous of the yr in lots of European pagan cultures. Reasons covered the truth that less agricultural work needed to be carried out at some point of the iciness, as well as an expectation of better climate as spring approached.[93] Celtic wintry weather herbs consisting of mistletoe and ivy, and the custom of kissing below a mistletoe, are commonplace in cutting-edge Christmas celebrations within the English-speaking nations.

The pre-Christian Germanic peoples—including the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse—celebrated a wintry weather competition called Yule, held inside the past due December to early January period, yielding modern English xmas, nowadays used as a synonym for Christmas.[ninety four] In Germanic language-speakme regions, numerous factors of modern-day Christmas folks custom and iconography might also have originated from Yule, inclusive of the Yule log, Yule boar, and the Yule goat.[ninety five][ninety four] Often leading a ghostly procession through the sky (the Wild Hunt), the lengthy-bearded god Odin is referred to as “the Yule one” and “Yule father” in Old Norse texts, whilst different gods are called “Yule beings”.[ninety six] On the opposite hand, as there are no reliable existing references to a Christmas log previous to the 16th century, the burning of the Christmas block might also had been an early present day invention by means of Christians unrelated to the pagan practice.[ninety seven]

In jap Europe also, antique pagan traditions have been included into Christmas celebrations, an instance being the Koleda,[98] which become included into the Christmas carol.

Post-classical history

The Nativity, from a 14th-century Missal; a liturgical e book containing texts and song necessary for the birthday celebration of Mass during the 12 months

In the Early Middle Ages, Christmas Day changed into overshadowed via Epiphany, which in western Christianity focused on the visit of the magi. But the medieval calendar was dominated by way of Christmas-related holidays. The 40 days earlier than Christmas became the “forty days of St. Martin” (which commenced on November 11, the dinner party of St. Martin of Tours), now known as Advent.[88] In Italy, former Saturnalian traditions have been attached to Advent.[88] Around the twelfth century, these traditions transferred again to the Twelve Days of Christmas (December 25 – January 5); a time that appears within the liturgical calendars as Christmastide or Twelve Holy Days.[88]

The prominence of Christmas Day multiplied regularly after Charlemagne changed into crowned Emperor on Christmas Day in 800. King Edmund the Martyr became anointed on Christmas in 855 and King William I of England become topped on Christmas Day 1066.

The coronation of Charlemagne on Christmas of 800 helped promote the recognition of the holiday

By the High Middle Ages, the vacation had turn out to be so distinguished that chroniclers automatically mentioned wherein numerous magnates celebrated Christmas. King Richard II of England hosted a Christmas banquet in 1377 at which twenty-eight oxen and three hundred sheep have been eaten.[88] The Yule boar was a commonplace feature of medieval Christmas feasts. Caroling also have become famous, and turned into in the beginning completed by means of a collection of dancers who sang. The group changed into composed of a lead singer and a hoop of dancers that furnished the chorus. Various writers of the time condemned caroling as lewd, indicating that the unruly traditions of Saturnalia and Yule may additionally have continued on this shape.[88] “Misrule”—drunkenness, promiscuity, playing—was additionally an critical element of the competition. In England, items were exchanged on New Year’s Day, and there has been special Christmas ale.[88]

Christmas throughout the Middle Ages changed into a public pageant that included ivy, holly, and other evergreens.[ninety nine] Christmas gift-giving throughout the Middle Ages become typically among people with legal relationships, together with tenant and landlord.[99] The annual indulgence in consuming, dancing, making a song, wearing, and card gambling escalated in England, and by means of the 17th century the Christmas season featured lavish dinners, complex masques, and pageants. In 1607, King James I insisted that a play be acted on Christmas night and that the courtroom bask in games.[one hundred] It changed into during the Reformation in 16th–17th-century Europe that many Protestants changed the present bringer to the Christ Child or Christkindl, and the date of giving presents changed from December 6 to Christmas Eve.[a hundred and one]

Modern history

Associating it with drunkenness and different misbehaviour, the Puritans banned Christmas in England in the seventeenth century.[48] It changed into restored as a felony excursion in 1660, but remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church ushered in “the improvement of richer and greater symbolic styles of worship, the constructing of neo-Gothic churches, and the revival and increasing centrality of the keeping of Christmas itself as a Christian competition” as well as “unique charities for the bad” similarly to “unique offerings and musical activities”.[49] Charles Dickens and different writers helped on this revival of the vacation by “converting cognizance of Christmas and the manner in which it turned into celebrated” as they emphasized circle of relatives, faith, gift-giving, and social reconciliation in place of the ancient revelry not unusual in some locations.[49]

18th century

Following the Protestant Reformation, a few of the new denominations, along with the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church, endured to have a good time Christmas.[102] In 1629, the Anglican poet John Milton penned On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity, a poem that has considering the fact that been study through many at some point of Christmastide.[103][104] Donald Heinz, a professor at California State University, states that Martin Luther “inaugurated a length wherein Germany might produce a completely unique tradition of Christmas, much copied in North America.”[one zero five] Among the congregations of the Dutch Reformed Church, Christmas turned into celebrated as one of the primary evangelical feasts.[106]

However, in seventeenth century England, some companies inclusive of the Puritans, strongly condemned the birthday party of Christmas, thinking about it a Catholic invention and the “trappings of popery” or the “rags of the Beast”.[48] In assessment, the installed Anglican Church “pressed for a extra intricate observance of feasts, penitential seasons, and saints’ days. The calendar reform have become a prime factor of hysteria between the Anglican birthday celebration and the Puritan birthday celebration.”[107] The Catholic Church also spoke back, promoting the festival in a extra religiously orientated shape. King Charles I of England directed his noblemen and gentry to go back to their landed estates in midwinter to keep up their antique-style Christmas generosity.[100] Following the Parliamentarian victory over Charles I in the course of the English Civil War, England’s Puritan rulers banned Christmas in 1647.[forty eight][108]

Protests observed as pro-Christmas rioting broke out in numerous towns and for weeks Canterbury become managed with the aid of the rioters, who adorned doors with holly and shouted royalist slogans.[48] The e-book, The Vindication of Christmas (London, 1652), argued in opposition to the Puritans, and makes word of Old English Christmas traditions, dinner, roast apples on the hearth, card playing, dances with “plow-boys” and “maidservants”, vintage Father Christmas and carol making a song.[109]

The Examination and Trial of Father Christmas, (1686), posted after Christmas changed into reinstated as a holy day in England

The Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 ended the ban, however many Calvinist priests still disapproved of Christmas birthday celebration. As such, in Scotland, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland discouraged the observance of Christmas, and though James VI commanded its birthday party in 1618, attendance at church become scant.[a hundred and ten] The Parliament of Scotland officially abolished the observance of Christmas in 1640, claiming that the church were “purged of all superstitious observation of days”.[111] It changed into no longer till 1958 that Christmas again have become a Scottish public holiday.[112]

Following the Restoration of Charles II, Poor Robin’s Almanack contained the lines: “Now way to God for Charles return, / Whose absence made vintage Christmas mourn. / For then we scarcely did it know, / Whether it Christmas were or no.”[113] The diary of James Woodforde, from the latter half of of the 18th century, information the observance of Christmas and celebrations related to the season over a number of years.[114]

In Colonial America, the Pilgrims of New England shared radical Protestant disapproval of Christmas.[ninety two] The Plymouth Pilgrims positioned their loathing for the day into exercise in 1620 when they spent their first Christmas Day within the New World running – hence demonstrating their whole contempt for the day.[92] Non-Puritans in New England deplored the lack of the holidays enjoyed with the aid of the laboring classes in England.[a hundred and fifteen] Christmas observance was outlawed in Boston in 1659.[92] The ban through the Puritans turned into revoked in 1681 by using English governor Edmund Andros, but it was not till the mid-nineteenth century that celebrating Christmas have become elegant inside the Boston vicinity.[116]

At the same time, Christian residents of Virginia and New York determined the vacation freely. Pennsylvania German Settlers, pre-eminently the Moravian settlers of Bethlehem, Nazareth and Lititz in Pennsylvania and the Wachovia Settlements in North Carolina, had been enthusiastic celebrators of Christmas. The Moravians in Bethlehem had the primary Christmas timber in America in addition to the first Nativity Scenes.[117] Christmas fell out of favor within the United States after the American Revolution, while it become considered an English custom.[118]

George Washington attacked Hessian (German) mercenaries on the day after Christmas all through the Battle of Trenton on December 26, 1776, Christmas being a lot greater famous in Germany than in America at the moment.

With the atheistic Cult of Reason in power during the generation of Revolutionary France, Christian Christmas non secular offerings were banned and the 3 kings cake become renamed the “equality cake” beneath anticlerical government policies.[119][one hundred twenty]

19th century

In the UK, Christmas Day have become a financial institution holiday in 1834. Boxing Day, the day after Christmas, became brought in 1871.[121]

In the early-nineteenth century, writers imagined Tudor Christmas as a time of heartfelt party. In 1843, Charles Dickens wrote the novel A Christmas Carol, which helped revive the “spirit” of Christmas and seasonal merriment.[89][ninety] Its instant recognition performed a prime function in portraying Christmas as a holiday emphasizing family, goodwill, and compassion.[50]

Dickens sought to construct Christmas as a circle of relatives-centered competition of generosity, linking “worship and feasting, inside a context of social reconciliation.”[122] Superimposing his humanitarian imaginative and prescient of the vacation, in what has been termed “Carol Philosophy”,[123] Dickens inspired many elements of Christmas which can be celebrated today in Western culture, inclusive of own family gatherings, seasonal foods and drinks, dancing, games, and a festive generosity of spirit.[124] A prominent word from the tale, “Merry Christmas”, turned into popularized following the arrival of the story.[125] This coincided with the arrival of the Oxford Movement and the increase of Anglo-Catholicism, which led a revival in traditional rituals and non secular observances.[126]

The Queen’s Christmas tree at Windsor Castle, posted inside the Illustrated London News, 1848

The term Scrooge have become a synonym for miser, with “Bah! Humbug!” dismissive of the festive spirit.[127] In 1843, the first commercial Christmas card was produced by using Sir Henry Cole.[128] The revival of the Christmas Carol started out with William Sandys’s “Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern” (1833), with the primary appearance in print of “The First Noel”, “I Saw Three Ships”, “Hark the Herald Angels Sing” and “God Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen”, popularized in Dickens’ A Christmas Carol.

In Britain, the Christmas tree became brought within the early 19th century with the aid of the German-born Queen Charlotte. In 1832, the future Queen Victoria wrote approximately her pride at having a Christmas tree, hung with lights, ornaments, and affords placed spherical it.[129] After her marriage to her German cousin Prince Albert, via 1841 the custom became more widespread at some point of Britain.[130]

An picture of the British royal circle of relatives with their Christmas tree at Windsor Castle created a sensation while it changed into published inside the Illustrated London News in 1848. A changed version of this photo changed into published in Godey’s Lady’s Book, Philadelphia in 1850.[131][132] By the 1870s, setting up a Christmas tree had end up commonplace in America.[131]

In America, hobby in Christmas were revived in the 1820s with the aid of numerous short stories via Washington Irving which seem in his The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. and “Old Christmas”. Irving’s testimonies depicted harmonious heat-hearted English Christmas festivities he skilled while staying in Aston Hall, Birmingham, England, that had largely been abandoned,[133] and he used the tract Vindication of Christmas (1652) of Old English Christmas traditions, that he had transcribed into his journal as a layout for his tales.[100]

In 1822, Clement Clarke Moore wrote the poem A Visit From St. Nicholas (popularly known by way of its first line: Twas the Night Before Christmas).[134]

The poem helped popularize the tradition of exchanging presents, and seasonal Christmas shopping began to expect financial significance.[one hundred thirty five]

This also started the cultural conflict among the vacation’s spiritual importance and its related commercialism that some see as corrupting the vacation. In her 1850 book The First Christmas in New England, Harriet Beecher Stowe consists of a individual who complains that the proper which means of Christmas was misplaced in a shopping spree.[136]

While the celebration of Christmas changed into now not yet customary in some areas within the U.S., Henry Wadsworth Longfellow detected “a transition nation approximately Christmas here in New England” in 1856. “The vintage puritan feeling prevents it from being a happy, hearty holiday; even though every 12 months makes it more so.”[137]

In Reading, Pennsylvania, a newspaper remarked in 1861, “Even our presbyterian buddies who have hitherto steadfastly ignored Christmas—threw open their church doorways and assembled in pressure to rejoice the anniversary of the Savior’s birth.”[137]

The First Congregational Church of Rockford, Illinois, “despite the fact that of genuine Puritan stock”, changed into ‘making ready for a grand Christmas jubilee’, a information correspondent suggested in 1864.[137] By 1860, fourteen states which include numerous from New England had followed Christmas as a criminal holiday.[138] In 1875, Louis Prang added the Christmas card to Americans. He has been referred to as the “father of the American Christmas card”.[139] On June 28, 1870, Christmas changed into officially declared a United States federal excursion.[one hundred forty]

20th century

Up to the Nineteen Fifties within the UK, many Christmas customs were confined to the upper training and higher-off households. The mass of the population had no longer adopted most of the Christmas rituals that later became standard. The Christmas tree became rare. Christmas dinner might be red meat or goose – certainly no longer turkey. In their stockings youngsters may get an apple, orange, and candies. Full birthday party of a circle of relatives Christmas with all the trimmings handiest became enormous with elevated prosperity from the Fifties.[141] National papers had been posted on Christmas Day till 1912. Post changed into nonetheless added on Christmas Day until 1961. League football fits persisted in Scotland till the Seventies while in England they ceased at the stop of the Nineteen Fifties.[142][143]

The Christmas Visit. Postcard, c.1910

Under the country atheism of the Soviet Union, after its basis in 1917, Christmas celebrations—in conjunction with different Christian vacations—had been prohibited in public.[a hundred and forty four] During the 1920s, ’30s, and ’40s, the League of Militant Atheists advocated faculty pupils to marketing campaign in opposition to Christmas traditions, inclusive of the Christmas tree, in addition to other Christian vacations, together with Easter; the League established an antireligious excursion to be the thirty first of each month as a alternative.[one hundred forty five] At the height of this persecution, in 1929, on Christmas Day, youngsters in Moscow have been encouraged to spit on crucifixes as a protest in opposition to the vacation.[146] It turned into no longer till the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 that the persecution ended and Orthodox Christmas have become a state excursion again for the first time in Russia after seven decades.[147]

European History Professor Joseph Perry wrote that likewise, in Nazi Germany, “because Nazi ideologues saw prepared religion as an enemy of the totalitarian nation, propagandists sought to deemphasize—or put off altogether—the Christian factors of the vacation” and that “Propagandists tirelessly promoted numerous Nazified Christmas songs, which replaced Christian topics with the regime’s racial ideologies.”[148]

As Christmas celebrations commenced to be held round the sector even outside traditional Christian cultures in the twentieth century, some Muslim-majority nations in the end banned the practice of Christmas, claiming it undermines Islam.[149]

Observance and traditions

Dark brown – international locations that don’t understand Christmas on December 25 or January 7 as a public vacation.Light brown – countries that do not recognize Christmas as a public vacation, however the excursion is given observance.

Christmas Day is celebrated as a primary competition and public holiday in international locations around the sector, along with many whose populations are in general non-Christian. In some non-Christian regions, periods of former colonial rule delivered the birthday party (e.g. Hong Kong); in others, Christian minorities or foreign cultural affects have led populations to study the holiday. Countries together with Japan, in which Christmas is popular regardless of there being only a small quantity of Christians, have adopted the various secular aspects of Christmas, inclusive of gift-giving, decorations, and Christmas timber.

Among nations with a robust Christian culture, a number of Christmas celebrations have developed that incorporate nearby and nearby cultures.

Church attendance

Christmas Day (together with its vigil, Christmas Eve), is a Festival within the Lutheran Churches, a holy day of duty in the Roman Catholic Church, and a Principal Feast of the Anglican Communion. Other Christian denominations do not rank their dinner party days but although region importance on Christmas Eve/Christmas Day, as with other Christian feasts like Easter, Ascension Day, and Pentecost.[151] As such, for Christians, attending a Christmas Eve or Christmas Day church provider performs an vital component inside the popularity of the Christmas season. Christmas, along side Easter, is the duration of highest annual church attendance. A 2010 survey via LifeWay Christian Resources determined that six in ten Americans attend church services in the course of this time.[152] In the United Kingdom, the Church of England said an envisioned attendance of two.5 million human beings at Christmas services in 2015.[153]


A typical Neapolitan presepe or presepio, or Nativity scene. Local crèches are famend for their ornate decorations and symbolic figurines, often mirroring day by day life.

Nativity scenes are known from tenth-century Rome. They had been popularised by way of Saint Francis of Assisi from 1223, quick spreading across Europe.[154] Different styles of decorations advanced across the Christian international, dependent on local way of life and to be had sources, and may range from simple representations of the crib to far greater tricky sets – renowned manger scene traditions include the colorful Kraków szopka in Poland,[a hundred and fifty five] which imitate Kraków’s historical buildings as settings, the elaborate Italian presepi (Neapolitan, Genoese and Bolognese),[156][157][158][159] or the Provençal crèches in southern France, the usage of hand-painted terracotta collectible figurines referred to as santons.[a hundred and sixty] In certain components of the world, drastically Sicily, living nativity scenes following the tradition of Saint Francis are a popular opportunity to static crèches.[161][162][163] The first commercially produced decorations regarded in Germany within the 1860s, inspired by using paper chains made by using youngsters.[164] In nations in which a representation of the Nativity scene may be very famous, human beings are recommended to compete and create the most unique or sensible ones. Within a few households, the pieces used to make the representation are taken into consideration a valuable own family heirloom.[citation wished]

The conventional colorations of Christmas decorations are red, green, and gold.[a hundred sixty five][166] Red symbolizes the blood of Jesus, which turned into shed in his crucifixion, at the same time as inexperienced symbolizes eternal life, and particularly the evergreen tree, which does not lose its leaves within the winter, and gold is the primary color associated with Christmas, as one of the three items of the Magi, symbolizing royalty.[167]

The respectable White House Christmas tree for 1962, displayed inside the Entrance Hall and presented through John F. Kennedy and his spouse Jackie.

The Christmas tree was first utilized by German Lutherans within the sixteenth century, with information indicating that a Christmas tree become positioned in the Cathedral of Strassburg in 1539, under the management of the Protestant Reformer, Martin Bucer.[168][169] In america, these “German Lutherans delivered the embellished Christmas tree with them; the Moravians positioned lighted candles on the ones timber.”[one hundred seventy][171] When redecorating the Christmas tree, many individuals region a celeb at the top of the tree symbolizing the Star of Bethlehem, a reality recorded by means of The School Journal in 1897.[172][173] Professor David Albert Jones of Oxford University writes that inside the nineteenth century, it have become famous for people to additionally use an angel to pinnacle the Christmas tree a good way to signify the angels noted in the debts of the Nativity of Jesus.[174] The Christmas tree is taken into consideration by way of some as Christianisation of pagan way of life and ritual surrounding the Winter Solstice, which included using evergreen boughs, and an model of pagan tree worship;[one hundred seventy five] in line with eighth-century biographer Æddi Stephanus, Saint Boniface (634–709), who was a missionary in Germany, took an ax to an all righttree devoted to Thor and mentioned a fir tree, which he said changed into a more becoming item of reverence because it pointed to heaven and it had a triangular form, which he said became symbolic of the Trinity.[176] The English language word “Christmas tree” is first recorded in 1835[177] and represents an importation from the German language.[one hundred seventy five][178][179]

Since the 16th century, the poinsettia, a native plant from Mexico, has been related to Christmas sporting the Christian symbolism of the Star of Bethlehem; in that united states it’s miles recognised in Spanish because the Flower of the Holy Night.[a hundred and eighty][181] Other famous vacation flowers include holly, mistletoe, pink amaryllis, and Christmas cactus.[182]

Other traditional decorations encompass bells, candles, sweet canes, stockings, wreaths, and angels. Both the displaying of wreaths and candles in every window are a greater traditional Christmas show.[183] The concentric assortment of leaves, typically from an evergreen, make up Christmas wreaths and are designed to put together Christians for the Advent season. Candles in each window are intended to demonstrate the reality that Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the remaining light of the world.[184]

Christmas lighting and banners can be hung along streets, music performed from audio system, and Christmas timber placed in outstanding locations.[185] It is commonplace in lots of parts of the world for town squares and patron purchasing regions to sponsor and show decorations. Rolls of brightly coloured paper with secular or non secular Christmas motifs are synthetic for the purpose of wrapping presents. In some international locations, Christmas decorations are historically taken down on Twelfth Night.[186]

Nativity play

For the Christian celebration of Christmas, the viewing of the Nativity play is one of the oldest Christmastime traditions, with the primary reenactment of the Nativity of Jesus taking area in A.D. 1223.[187] In that year, Francis of Assisi assembled a Nativity scene outdoor of his church in Italy and children sung Christmas carols celebrating the start of Jesus.[187] Each yr, this grew large and those travelled from afar to look Francis’ depiction of the Nativity of Jesus that came to characteristic drama and music.[187] Nativity performs eventually unfold at some stage in all of Europe, wherein they remain popular. Christmas Eve and Christmas Day church offerings often came to characteristic Nativity performs, as did schools and theatres.[187] In France, Germany, Mexico and Spain, Nativity performs are often reenacted outdoors inside the streets.[187]

Music and carols

The earliest extant in particular Christmas hymns appear in fourth-century Rome. Latin hymns such as “Veni redemptor gentium”, written through Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, have been austere statements of the theological doctrine of the Incarnation in opposition to Arianism. “Corde natus ex Parentis” (“Of the Father’s love begotten”) by way of the Spanish poet Prudentius (d. 413) remains sung in some church buildings nowadays.[188] In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Christmas “Sequence” or “Prose” was delivered in North European monasteries, developing under Bernard of Clairvaux into a series of rhymed stanzas. In the 12th century the Parisian monk Adam of St. Victor started to derive track from popular songs, introducing something closer to the traditional Christmas carol.[citation needed]

The songs now recognized specially as carols had been initially communal people songs sung during celebrations inclusive of “harvest tide” as well as Christmas. It became only later that carols started out to be sung in church. Traditionally, carols have frequently been based totally on medieval chord styles, and it is this that offers them their uniquely feature musical sound. Some carols like “Personent hodie”, “Good King Wenceslas”, and “The Holly and the Ivy” may be traced without delay lower back to the Middle Ages. They are among the oldest musical compositions nonetheless regularly sung. “Adeste Fideles” (O Come all ye faithful) appears in its present day form inside the mid-18th century, despite the fact that the phrases may also have originated in the 13th century.[quotation needed]

The making a song of carols to begin with suffered a decline in popularity after the Protestant Reformation in northern Europe, despite the fact that a few Reformers, like Martin Luther, wrote carols and recommended their use in worship. Carols largely survived in rural groups till the revival of interest in famous songs within the 19th century. The 18th-century English reformer Charles Wesley understood the significance of tune to worship. In addition to placing many psalms to melodies, which were influential in the Great Awakening inside the United States, he wrote texts for at the least three Christmas carols. The satisfactory known turned into at the beginning entitled “Hark! How All the Welkin Rings”, later renamed “Hark! the Herald Angels Sing”.[189]

Completely secular Christmas seasonal songs emerged within the past due 18th century. “Deck the Halls” dates from 1784, and the American “Jingle Bells” became copyrighted in 1857. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, African American spirituals and songs about Christmas, primarily based in their way of life of spirituals, have become greater widely recognized. An growing range of seasonal holiday songs were commercially produced in the 20th century, which include jazz and blues versions. In addition, there has been a revival of interest in early tune, from companies making a song folk tune, including The Revels, to performers of early medieval and classical song. John Rutter has composed many carols consisting of “All Bells in Paradise”, “Angels’ Carol”, “Candlelight Carol”, “Donkey Carol”, “Jesus Child”, “Shepherd’s Pipe Carol” and “Star Carol”.[quotation wished]

During the 19th Century within the United States, there was a considerable adoption of Christmas traditions from German and different immgrants, as well as novels through of Charles Dickens, which include The Pickwick Papers and A Christmas Carol.[one hundred ninety]The practices included having Christmas parties, caroling door-to-door, sending Christmas playing cards, giving gifts, and decorating homes and timber.People displayed nativity scenes and crèches.[one hundred ninety]There were several American Christmas carols composed at some stage in the 19th Century, including “It Came Upon the Midnight Clear” in 1849, “I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day” in 1863, and “Away in a Manger” in 1885.[190]This time period marked the start of the prevailing-day lifestyle of American and British choral companies acting Handel’s Messiah at some stage in Christmas, instead of at some point of Easter.[one hundred ninety]

The Christmas music in the U.S. turned into encouraged by using community and church tune, in addition to radio, television, and recordings.[one hundred ninety]Radio has protected Christmas song from range indicates from the Nineteen Forties and 1950s, as well as current-day stations that exclusively play Christmas music from late November via December 25.[one hundred ninety]Hollywood films have featured new Christmas song, consisting of “White Christmas” in Holiday Inn and Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.[one hundred ninety] Traditional carols have also been covered in Hollywood films, which includes “Hark the Herald Angels Sing” in It’s a Wonderful Life (1946), and “Silent Night” in A Christmas Story.[one hundred ninety]American Christmas songs consist of spiritual carols and hymns, in addition to secular songs presenting goodwill, Santa Claus, and present-giving.[190]

Traditional cuisine

A special Christmas circle of relatives meal is historically an crucial a part of the vacation’s party, and the meals this is served varies substantially from u . s . a . to u . s .. Some regions have special meals for Christmas Eve, such as Sicily, in which 12 sorts of fish are served. In the UK and nations inspired by its traditions, a standard Christmas meal consists of turkey, goose or other massive hen, gravy, potatoes, vegetables, occasionally bread and cider. Special desserts also are organized, which include Christmas pudding, mince pies, Christmas cake, Panettone and Yule log cake.[191][192] Traditional Christmas meal in Central Europe is fried carp or other fish.[193]


A 1907 Christmas card with Santa and a number of his reindeer

Christmas cards are illustrated messages of greeting exchanged between pals and circle of relatives participants at some point of the weeks previous Christmas Day. The conventional greeting reads “wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year”, just like that of the first industrial Christmas card, produced by using Sir Henry Cole in London in 1843.[194] The custom of sending them has emerge as famous among a wide go-section of people with the emergence of the present day fashion towards changing E-playing cards.[citation needed]

Christmas cards are purchased in large portions and feature paintings, commercially designed and relevant to the season. The content material of the layout might relate at once to the Christmas narrative, with depictions of the Nativity of Jesus, or Christian symbols together with the Star of Bethlehem, or a white dove, which can constitute each the Holy Spirit and Peace on Earth. Other Christmas playing cards are extra secular and might depict Christmas traditions, mythical figures along with Santa Claus, objects directly associated with Christmas which includes candles, holly, and baubles, or a whole lot of snap shots related to the season, consisting of Christmastide sports, snow scenes, and the natural world of the northern iciness. There are even humorous playing cards and genres depicting nostalgic scenes of the beyond including crinolined shoppers in idealized nineteenth-century streetscapes.[citation wished]

Some select playing cards with a poem, prayer, or Biblical verse; at the same time as others distance themselves from faith with an all-inclusive “Season’s greetings”.[195]

Commemorative stamps

A quantity of countries have issued commemorative stamps at Christmastide. Postal customers will regularly use those stamps to mail Christmas playing cards, and they’re popular with philatelists. These stamps are normal postage stamps, unlike Christmas seals, and are valid for postage 12 months-round. They normally move on sale sometime among early October and early December and are published in widespread portions.

Gift giving

Christmas gifts below a Christmas tree

The exchanging of items is one of the center aspects of the modern Christmas party, making it the maximum profitable time of year for outlets and companies for the duration of the arena. On Christmas, people change presents based at the Christian culture associated with Saint Nicholas,[196] and the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh which had been given to the baby Jesus through the Magi.[197][198] The exercise of gift giving within the Roman birthday celebration of Saturnalia may have prompted Christian customs, but then again the Christian “center dogma of the Incarnation, but, solidly set up the giving and receiving of presents as the structural precept of that recurrent but specific event”, because it was the Biblical Magi, “collectively with all their fellow guys, who acquired the present of God thru man’s renewed participation in the divine lifestyles.”[199]

Gift-bearing figures

A quantity of figures are related to Christmas and the seasonal giving of presents. Among these are Father Christmas, also referred to as Santa Claus (derived from the Dutch for Saint Nicholas), Père Noël, and the Weihnachtsmann; Saint Nicholas or Sinterklaas; the Christkind; Kris Kringle; Joulupukki; tomte/nisse; Babbo Natale; Saint Basil; and Ded Moroz. The Scandinavian tomte (also referred to as nisse) is every now and then depicted as a gnome as opposed to Santa Claus.

The fine regarded of these figures these days is pink-dressed Santa Claus, of numerous origins. The name Santa Claus can be traced again to the Dutch Sinterklaas, which means that genuinely Saint Nicholas. Nicholas became a 4th-century Greek bishop of Myra, a town in the Roman province of Lycia, whose ruins are 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from cutting-edge Demre in southwest Turkey.[201][202] Among different saintly attributes, he changed into mentioned for the care of kids, generosity, and the giving of presents. His banquet day, December 6, got here to be celebrated in many nations with the giving of presents.[a hundred and one]

Saint Nicholas traditionally regarded in bishop’s apparel, accompanied by means of helpers, inquiring approximately the behaviour of kids during the beyond 12 months before determining whether or not they deserved a gift or not. By the thirteenth century, Saint Nicholas became well known inside the Netherlands, and the exercise of present-giving in his name unfold to different elements of relevant and southern Europe. At the Reformation in 16th–seventeenth-century Europe, many Protestants changed the present bringer to the Christ Child or Christkindl, corrupted in English to Kris Kringle, and the date of giving presents changed from December 6 to Christmas Eve.[one hundred and one]

The cutting-edge famous picture of Santa Claus, but, become created in the United States, and specifically in New York. The transformation was done with the resource of superb members such as Washington Irving and the German-American cartoonist Thomas Nast (1840–1902). Following the American Revolutionary War, a number of the inhabitants of New York City sought out symbols of the metropolis’s non-English beyond. New York had in the beginning been hooked up because the Dutch colonial city of New Amsterdam and the Dutch Sinterklaas tradition was reinvented as Saint Nicholas.[203]

Current culture in numerous Latin American international locations (consisting of Venezuela and Colombia) holds that at the same time as Santa makes the toys, he then offers them to the Baby Jesus, who’s the one who simply gives you them to the children’s homes, a reconciliation between traditional non secular beliefs and the iconography of Santa Claus imported from america.

In South Tyrol (Italy), Austria, Czech Republic, Southern Germany, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Slovakia, and Switzerland, the Christkind (Ježíšek in Czech, Jézuska in Hungarian and Ježiško in Slovak) brings the provides. Greek kids get their provides from Saint Basil on New Year’s Eve, the eve of that saint’s liturgical feast.[204] The German St. Nikolaus isn’t same with the Weihnachtsmann (who is the German model of Santa Claus / Father Christmas). St. Nikolaus wears a bishop’s get dressed and still brings small items (typically chocolates, nuts, and culmination) on December 6 and is accompanied by using Knecht Ruprecht. Although many parents round the arena mechanically teach their kids about Santa Claus and other present bringers, a few have come to reject this practice, considering it deceptive.[205]

Multiple present-giver figures exist in Poland, various between areas and individual families. St Nicholas (Święty Mikołaj) dominates Central and North-East areas, the Starman (Gwiazdor) is maximum not unusual in Greater Poland, Baby Jesus (Dzieciątko) is precise to Upper Silesia, with the Little Star (Gwiazdka) and the Little Angel (Aniołek) being commonplace within the South and the South-East. Grandfather Frost (Dziadek Mróz) is much less normally prevalent in some regions of Eastern Poland.[206][207] It is well worth noting that across all of Poland, St Nicholas is the gift giver at the Saint Nicholas Day on December 6.

Date in keeping with Julian calendar

Some jurisdictions of the Eastern Orthodox Church, such as those of Russia, Georgia, Ukraine, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Jerusalem, mark feasts the use of the older Julian calendar. As of 2021, there is a distinction of thirteen days among the Julian calendar and the current Gregorian calendar, that’s used across the world for most secular functions. As a result, December 25 on the Julian calendar currently corresponds to January 7 at the calendar utilized by most governments and people in normal existence. Therefore, the aforementioned Orthodox Christians mark December 25 (and for that reason Christmas) on the day that is across the world taken into consideration to be January 7.[five]

However, other Orthodox Christians, which include the ones belonging to the jurisdictions of Constantinople, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Antioch, Alexandria, Albania, Cyprus, Finland, and the Orthodox Church in America, among others, commenced the usage of the Revised Julian calendar inside the early 20th century, which at present corresponds precisely to the Gregorian calendar.[208] Therefore, those Orthodox Christians mark December 25 (and thus Christmas) on the equal day that is the world over taken into consideration to be December 25, and which is likewise the date of Christmas among Western Christians.[quotation needed]

A in addition trouble is brought via the fact that the Armenian Apostolic Church continues the original historical Eastern Christian exercise of celebrating the birth of Christ not as a separate holiday, but at the identical day as the celebration of his baptism (Theophany), which is on January 6. This is a public vacation in Armenia, and it’s miles hung on the identical day that is internationally considered to be January 6, due to the fact the Armenian Church in Armenia uses the Gregorian calendar.[quotation wished]

However, there’s additionally a small Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem, which keeps the traditional Armenian custom of celebrating the birth of Christ at the identical day as Theophany (January 6), however makes use of the Julian calendar for the willpower of that date. As a result, this church celebrates “Christmas” (greater properly known as Theophany) at the day that is considered January 19 on the Gregorian calendar in use by means of the bulk of the world.[quotation wished]

In summary, there are 4 unique dates used by exclusive Christian agencies to mark the delivery of Christ, given within the desk under.

ListingChurch or sectionDateCalendarGregorian dateNoteArmenian Patriarchate of JerusalemJanuary 6Julian calendarJanuary 19Correspondence among Julian January 6 and Gregorian January 19 holds till 2100; inside the following century the difference can be in the future more.[citation wished]Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Catholic Church, Armenian Evangelical ChurchJanuary 6Gregorian calendarJanuary 6Some Anabaptists, along with the Amish[eight]December 25Julian calendarJanuary 6Old ChristmasEastern Orthodox Church jurisdictions, consisting of the ones of Constantinople, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Antioch, Alexandria, Albania, Cyprus, Finland, and the Orthodox Church in AmericaDecember 25Revised Julian calendarDecember 25Revised Julian calendar utilization commenced in the early twentieth century[quotation wished]Other Eastern Orthodox: Russia, Georgia, Ukraine, Macedonia, Belarus, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and Jerusalem.

Also, a few Byzantine Rite Catholics and Byzantine Rite Lutherans.

December 25Julian calendarJanuary 7Correspondence between Julian December 25 and Gregorian January 7 of the following 12 months holds until 2100; from 2101 to 2199 the distinction may be sooner or later extra.[citation wished]Coptic Orthodox Church of AlexandriaKoiak 29 or 28 (similar to Julian December 25)Coptic calendarJanuary 7After the Coptic insertion of a leap day in what for the Julian calendar is August (September in Gregorian), Christmas is widely known on Koiak 28 with a purpose to keep the exact c programming language of nine 30-day months and five days of the child’s gestation.[quotation needed]Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (sole date), Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church (sole date),

and P’ent’ay (Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelical) Churches (primary date)

Tahsas 29 or 28 (similar to Julian December 25)Ethiopian CalendarJanuary 7After the Ethiopian and Eritrean insertion of a bounce day in what for the Julian calendar is August (September in Gregorian), Christmas is well known on Tahsas 28 that allows you to keep the precise c language of nine 30-day months and five days of the kid’s gestation.[209]

Most Protestants (P’ent’ay/Evangelicals) in the diaspora have the choice of selecting the Ethiopian calendar (Tahsas 29/January 7) or the Gregorian calendar (December 25) for non secular vacations, with this option being used while the corresponding japanese party is not a public excursion in the western world (with maximum diaspora Protestants celebrating both days).[citation wanted]

Most Western Christian Churches, maximum Eastern Catholic church buildings and civil calendarsDecember 25Gregorian calendarDecember 25Economy

Christmas decorations on the Galeries Lafayette branch save in Paris, France. The Christmas season is the busiest trading duration for shops.

Christmas market in Jena, Germany

Christmas is typically a height selling season for outlets in many countries around the arena. Sales boom dramatically as human beings purchase presents, decorations, and substances to celebrate. In the United States, the “Christmas shopping season” starts as early as October.[210][211] In Canada, merchants start advertising and marketing campaigns just before Halloween (October 31), and step up their marketing following Remembrance Day on November eleven. In the UK and Ireland, the Christmas shopping season begins from mid-November, around the time when excessive avenue Christmas lighting are grew to become on.[212][213] In the United States, it has been calculated that 1 / 4 of all private spending takes place during the Christmas/excursion purchasing season.[214] Figures from the U.S. Census Bureau screen that expenditure in branch stores national rose from $20.8 billion in November 2004 to $31.9 billion in December 2004, an boom of fifty four percent. In different sectors, the pre-Christmas increase in spending became even extra, there being a November–December shopping for surge of one hundred percentage in bookstores and 170 percent in rings stores. In the same yr employment in American retail shops rose from 1.6 million to 1.eight million in themonths main up to Christmas.[215] Industries completely depending on Christmas include Christmas playing cards, of which 1.9 billion are sent in the United States each year, and stay Christmas Trees, of which 20.eight million have been cut within the U.S. in 2002.[216] For 2019, the common US adult become projected to spend $920 on items on my own.[217] In the UK in 2010, as much as £8 billion was anticipated to be spent on line at Christmas, approximately a quarter of total retail festive income.[213]

In most Western international locations, Christmas Day is the least lively day of the 12 months for enterprise and trade; nearly all retail, business and institutional organizations are closed, and almost all industries give up interest (more than another day of the year), whether laws require such or no longer. In England and Wales, the Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 prevents all massive shops from buying and selling on Christmas Day. Similar legislation turned into accredited in Scotland with the Christmas Day and New Year’s Day Trading (Scotland) Act 2007. Film studios release many excessive-price range movies throughout the holiday season, inclusive of Christmas films, fantasy films or high-tone dramas with high manufacturing values to hopes of maximizing the chance of nominations for the Academy Awards.[citation wanted]

One economist’s analysis calculates that, no matter multiplied standard spending, Christmas is a deadweight loss beneath orthodox microeconomic principle, because of the effect of present-giving. This loss is calculated as the distinction between what the present giver spent at the item and what the present receiver could have paid for the item. It is anticipated that during 2001, Christmas ended in a $four billion deadweight loss within the U.S. by myself.[218][219] Because of complicating factors, this analysis is every so often used to discuss viable flaws in present day microeconomic concept. Other deadweight losses encompass the outcomes of Christmas on the environment and the truth that fabric items are regularly perceived as white elephants, imposing cost for protection and storage and contributing to clutter.[220]


Christmas has at instances been the issue of controversy and attacks from various assets. Historically it become prohibited by way of Puritans once they in brief held electricity in England (1647–1660), and in Colonial America wherein the Puritans outlawed the birthday celebration of Christmas in 1659.[222][223] The Parliament of Scotland, which was ruled via Presbyterians, surpassed a series of acts outlawing the observance of Christmas between 1637 and 1690; Christmas Day did now not emerge as a public excursion in Scotland until 1958.[224] Christmas celebrations have also been prohibited via atheist states such as the Soviet Union[225] and more currently majority Muslim states consisting of Somalia, Tajikistan and Brunei.[226]

Some Christians and organizations which includes Pat Robertson’s American Center for Law and Justice cite alleged attacks on Christmas (dubbing them a “warfare on Christmas”).[227] Such businesses declare that any particular point out of the time period “Christmas” or its religious elements is being increasingly more censored, prevented, or discouraged by way of a number of advertisers, retailers, government (prominently schools), and different public and personal agencies. One controversy is the occurrence of Christmas timber being renamed Holiday timber.[228] In the U.S. there was a tendency to update the greeting Merry Christmas with Happy Holidays, which is taken into consideration inclusive on the time of the Jewish party of Hanukkah,[229] Kwanzaa, and Humanlight. In the U.S. and Canada, where the use of the time period “Holidays” is most prevalent, opponents have denounced its utilization and avoidance of the usage of the term “Christmas” as being politically correct.[230][231][232] In 1984, the U.S. Supreme Court dominated in Lynch v. Donnelly that a Christmas show (which protected a Nativity scene) owned and displayed by way of the town of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, did not violate the First Amendment.[233] American Muslim student Abdul Malik Mujahid has said that Muslims have to deal with Christmas with admire, despite the fact that they disagree with it.[234]

The authorities of the People’s Republic of China formally espouses country atheism,[235] and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this stop.[236] In December 2018, officials raided Christian church buildings just previous to Christmastide and coerced them to close; Christmas timber and Santa Clauses have been additionally forcibly eliminated.[237][238]

See additionallyChristmas in July – Second Christmas birthday celebration

Christmas Peace – Finnish lifestyle

Christmas Sunday – Sunday after Christmas

List of Christmas novels – Wikipedia list article

Little Christmas – Alternative title for 6 January

Nochebuena – Spanish term for Christmas Eve

Mawlid – Birthday of Muhammad

Twin Holy Birthdays – Baháʼí spiritual observance

Yaldā Night – Persian competition

Christmas with the aid of medium – Christmas represented in exceptional media

Notes^ Several branches of Eastern Christianity that use the Julian calendar also have a good time on December 25 in keeping with that calendar, which is now January 7 at the Gregorian calendar. Armenian Churches discovered the nativity on January 6 even before the Gregorian calendar originated. Most Armenian Christians use the Gregorian calendar, still celebrating Christmas Day on January 6. Some Armenian churches use the Julian calendar, thus celebrating Christmas Day on January 19 at the Gregorian calendar, with January 18 being Christmas Eve. Some areas additionally have fun generally on December 24, as opposed to December 25.

References^ a b “Christmas as a Multi-Faith Festival” (PDF). BBC Learning English. December 29, 2005. Archived (PDF) from the unique on October 1, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.

^ a b “In the U.S., Christmas Not Just for Christians”. Gallup, Inc. December 24, 2008. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.

^ a b c d e f Martindale, Cyril Charles (1908). “Christmas”. The Catholic Encyclopedia. three. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

^ Gwynne, Paul (2011). World Religions in Practice. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-6005-nine.

^ a b Ramzy, John. “The Glorious Feast of Nativity: 7 January? 29 Kiahk? 25 December?”. Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.

^ Steinfels, Peter (January 6, 2007). “At Armenian Churches, a Distinct Observance Today”. The New York Times. Archived from the unique on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 12, 2018.

^ Agadjanian, Alexander (2016). Armenian Christianity Today: Identity Politics and Popular Practice. Routledge. p. 113. ISBN 9781317178576. The Armenian Apostolic Church follows the oldest Jerusalem model of Canons of Calendar, based on the Julian Calendar, and therefore celebrates Christmas and Theophany on the equal day, January 6

^ a b “Why do Amish have a good time “Old” Christmas?”. Dutchman News. December 17, 2009. Archived from the authentic on December 26, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2019.

^ Jansezian, Nicole. “10 things to do over Christmas in the Holy Land”. The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the unique on December 26, 2014. Retrieved December 26, 2014. the Armenians in Jerusalem – and most effective in Jerusalem – rejoice Christmas on January 19…

^ “The Global Religious Landscape authentic on March 10, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2014.

^ “Christmas Strongly Religious For Half in U.S. Who Celebrate It”. Gallup, Inc. December 24, 2010. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.

^ Forbes, Bruce David (October 1, 2008). Christmas: A Candid History. University of California Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-zero-520-25802-zero. In 567 the Council of Tours proclaimed that the entire period among Christmas and Epiphany have to be considered a part of the celebration, creating what became referred to as the twelve days of Christmas, or what the English called Christmastide.On the last of the twelve days, known as Twelfth Night, various cultures evolved a huge range of extra special festivities. The version extends even to the problem of how to remember the times. If Christmas Day is the first of the twelve days, then Twelfth Night might be on January 5, the eve of Epiphany. If December 26, the day after Christmas, is the primary day, then Twelfth Night falls on January 6, the night of Epiphany itself.After Christmas and Epiphany had been in place, on December 25 and January 6, with the twelve days of Christmas in between, Christians slowly followed a length referred to as Advent, as a time of non secular training main up to Christmas.

^ Canadian Heritage – Public holidaysArchived November 24, 2009, on the Wayback Machine – Government of Canada. Retrieved November 27, 2009.

^ 2009 Federal Holidays Archived January sixteen, 2013, at the Wayback Machine – U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved November 27, 2009.

^ Bank vacations and British Summer time Archived May 15, 2011, on the Wayback Machine – HM Government. Retrieved November 27, 2009.

^ Ehorn, Lee Ellen; Hewlett, Shirely J.; Hewlett, Dale M. (September 1, 1995). December Holiday Customs. Lorenz Educational Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4291-0896-6.

^ Nick Hytrek, “Non-Christians focus on secular aspect of Christmas” Archived November 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Sioux City Journal, November 10, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2009.

^ Crump, William D. (September 15, 2001). The Christmas Encyclopedia (3 ed.). McFarland. p. 39. ISBN 9780786468270. Christians accept as true with that some of passages in the Bible are prophecies about future activities inside the existence of the promised Messiah or Jesus Christ. Most, but not all, of those prophecies are located inside the Old Testament … Born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2): “But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little a number of the thousands of Juda, but out of thee shall he come forth unto me this is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth had been from of vintage, from eternal.”

^ Tucker, Ruth A. (2011). Parade of Faith: A Biographical History of the Christian Church. Zondervan. p. 23. ISBN 9780310206385. According to gospel accounts, Jesus became born throughout the reign of Herod the Great, hence sometime before four BCE. The birth narrative in Luke’s gospel is one of the maximum acquainted passages inside the Bible. Leaving their place of birth of Nazareth, Mary and Joseph travel to Bethlehem to pay taxes. Arriving late, they discover no vacancy on the lodge. They are, but, supplied a solid, most in all likelihood a 2d room connected to a circle of relatives residing where animals were sheltered—a room that might provide some privacy from the primary circle of relatives room for cooking, consuming, and sleeping. This “metropolis of David” is the little metropolis of Bethlehem of Christmas-carol reputation, a starlit silhouette indelibly etched on Christmas cards. No faster was the baby born than angels introduced the news to shepherds who unfold the word.

^ Corinna Laughlin, Michael R. Prendergast, Robert C. Rabe, Corinna Laughlin, Jill Maria Murdy, Therese Brown, Mary Patricia Storms, Ann E. Degenhard, Jill Maria Murdy, Ann E. Degenhard, Therese Brown, Robert C. Rabe, Mary Patricia Storms, Michael R. Prendergast, Sourcebook for Sundays, Seasons, and Weekdays 2011: The Almanac for Pastoral Liturgy Archived April 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, LiturgyTrainingPublications, 2010, p. 29.

^ “The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 12: Commemorations of the Martyrs” Archived November 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Tertullian Project. 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2011.

^ Roll, Susan K. (1995). Toward the Origins of Christmas. Peeters Publishers. p. 133. ISBN 9789039005316.

^ a b c Bradt, Hale, Astronomy Methods, (2004), p. sixty nine.Roll, p. 87.

^ The Liturgical Year. Thomas Nelson. November three, 2009. ISBN 978-1-4185-8073-5. Retrieved April 2, 2009. Christmas is not virtually approximately the birthday celebration of a start date in any respect. It is ready the birthday celebration of a delivery. The reality of the date and the fact of the start arevarious things. The calendrical verification of the dinner party itself isn’t always truly that essential … What is vital to the information of a life-changing moment is that it occurred, no longer always in which or when it passed off. The message is apparent: Christmas isn’t always approximately marking the real beginning date of Jesus. It is set the Incarnation of the One who became like us in all things however sin (Hebrews four:15) and who humbled Himself “to the factor of dying-even death on a move” (Phil. 2:8). Christmas is a top dinner party, yes, but it isn’t the beginning of the liturgical yr. It is a memorial, a remembrance, of the birth of Jesus, not actually a celebration of the day itself. We keep in mind that due to the fact the Jesus of history turned into born, the Resurrection of the Christ of faith ought to happen.

^ “The Christmas Season”. CRI / Voice, Institute. Archived from the authentic on April 7, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009. The origins of the celebrations of Christmas and Epiphany, as well as the dates on which they’re determined, are rooted deeply in the records of the early church. There has been plenty scholarly debate concerning the precise time of the year whilst Jesus become born, or even in what year he changed into born. Actually, we do no longer understand both. The nice estimate is that Jesus was probable born inside the springtime, someplace among the years of 6 and 4 BC, as December is inside the middle of the bloodless rainy season in Bethlehem, when the sheep are saved inside and now not on pasture as instructed in the Bible. The loss of a consistent machine of timekeeping inside the first century, mistakes in later calendars and calculations, and absence of ancient information to go-reference events have led to this imprecision in fixing Jesus’ start. This shows that the Christmas party isn’t an observance of a historic date, however a commemoration of the event in phrases of worship.

^ The School Journal, Volume forty nine. Harvard University. 1894. Retrieved April 2, 2009. Throughout the Christian world the twenty fifth of December is celebrated because the birthday of Jesus Christ. There turned into a time when the churches have been not united concerning the date of the joyous occasion. Many Christians kept their Christmas in April, others in May, and nevertheless others on the near of September, till in the end December 25 became agreed upon because the most suitable date. The desire of that day become, of path, wholly arbitrary, for neither the precise date now not the length of the yr at which the start of Christ occurred is known. For purposes of commemoration, but, it’s miles unimportant whether or not the birthday party shall fall or not at an appropriate anniversary of the joyous event.

^ West’s Federal Supplement. West Publishing Company. 1990. While the Washington and King birthdays are exclusively secular holidays, Christmas has each secular and religious factors.

^ “Poll: In a converting kingdom, Santa endures”. Associated Press. December 22, 2006. Archived from the unique on December 26, 2018. Retrieved December 24, 2018.

^ Schoenborn, Christoph (1994). God’s human face: the Christ-icon. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-89870-514-zero.

^ Galey, John (1986). Sinai and the Monastery of St. Catherine. p. 92. ISBN 978-977-424-118-5.

^ Christenmas, n., Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved December 12.

^ a b “Christmas” inside the Middle English Dictionary. Archived January five, 2012, at the Wayback Machine

^ Griffiths, Emma (December 22, 2004). “Why get cross about Xmas?”. BBC News. Archived from the unique on November eleven, 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2011.

^ a b Hutton, Ronald (2001). The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192854483.

^ “Midwinter” in Bosworth & Toller. Archived January thirteen, 2012, at the Wayback Machine

^ Serjeantson, Mary Sidney (1968). A History of Foreign Words in English.

^ “Online Etymology Dictionary”. Archived from the unique on January 13, 2012. Retrieved December thirteen, 2011.

^ Yule Archived January 13, 2012, on the Wayback Machine, Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved December 12.

^ Noel Archived January thirteen, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved December 12.

^ “Biblical literature” Archived April 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. January 22, 2011.

^ “Matthew Chapter 2”. Enduring Word. December 8, 2015. Retrieved December 25, 2020.

^ a b Hijmans, S.E., Sol: The Sun inside the Art and Religions of Rome, 2009, p. 584.

^ a b Malachi 4:2.

^ “Christmas and its cycle”. New Catholic Encyclopedia. three (2d ed.). Catholic University of America Press. 2002. pp. 550–557.

^ “The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 12: Commemorations of the Martyrs. Archived February 21, 2017, on the Wayback Machine.” MGH Chronica Minora I (1892), pp.71–72. See the primary entry.

^ McGowan, Andrew, How December 25 Became Christmas Archived December 14, 2012, on the Wayback Machine, Bible History Daily, February 12, 2016.

^ Melton, J. Gordon (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7. The March 25 date, which tied together the beginning of Mary’s being pregnant and the incarnation of God in Jesus as happening 9 months earlier than Christmas (December 25), provided the reason for setting the start of the ecclesiastical and felony 12 months. … Both the Anglicans and the Lutherans have endured to study the March 25 date for celebrating the Annunciation.

^ a b c d e f Durston, Chris (December 1985). “Lords of Misrule: The Puritan War on Christmas 1642–60”. History Today. Vol. 35 no. 12. pp. 7–14. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007.

^ a b c Rowell, Geoffrey (December 1993). “Dickens and the Construction of Christmas”. History Today. forty three (12). Archived from the authentic on December 29, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2016. There is no doubt that A Christmas Carol is first and major a story concerned with the Christian gospel of liberation by way of the grace of God, and with incarnational religion which refuses to power a wedge between the sector of spirit and the world of depend. Both the Christmas dinners and the Christmas dinner-companies are blessed; the cornucopia of Christmas meals and feasting displays each the goodness of introduction and the joy of heaven. It is a great sign of a shift in theological emphasis within the 19th century from a pressure on the Atonement to a strain at the Incarnation, a strain which observed outward and seen shape within the sacramentalism of the Oxford Movement, the improvement of richer and extra symbolic styles of worship, the constructing of neo-Gothic church buildings, and the revival and increasing centrality of the retaining of Christmas itself as a Christian competition. … In the route of the century, below the have an effect on of the Oxford Movement’s situation for the higher observance of Christian festivals, Christmas have become increasingly prominent. By the later part of the century cathedrals furnished unique services and musical events, and may have revived ancient special charities for the terrible – though we ought to no longer forget about the troubles for large: parish-church cathedrals like Manchester, which on one Christmas Day had no much less than 80 couples coming to be married (the signing of the registers lasted till 4 within the afternoon). The recognition of Dickens’ A Christmas Carol performed a big component inside the converting consciousness of Christmas and the manner wherein it was celebrated. The reputation of his public readings of the story is a sign of ways plenty it resonated with the modern mood, and contributed to the increasing location of the Christmas birthday celebration in both secular and religious approaches that became firmly installed by way of the quit of the 19th century.

^ a b Rowell, Geoffrey, “Dickens and the Construction of Christmas”, History Today, Volume: forty three Issue: 12, December 1993, pp. 17–24.

^ Ledger, Sally; Furneaux, Holly, eds. (2011). Charles Dickens in Context. Cambridge University Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-19-513886-three. Retrieved December 25, 2020.

^ McCracken, George, Arnobius of Sicca, the Case Against the Pagans, Volume 2, p. 83. “Therefore if this is a fact, how can Jupiter be god if it’s miles agreed that god is eternal, even as the other is represented by means of you to have a birthday, and nervous with the aid of the brand new experience, to have squalled like an toddler.”

^ The manuscript reads, VIII kal. Ian. natus Christus in Betleem Iudeae. (“The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 12: Commemorations of the Martyrs Archived November 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine,” The Tertullian Project. 2006.)

^ Wainwright, Geoffrey; Westerfield Tucker, Karen Beth, eds. (2005). The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-zero-19-513886-3. Retrieved February 3, 2012.

^ a b Roy, Christian (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5. Archived from the authentic on January 11, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2012.

^ Pokhilko, Hieromonk Nicholas. “History of Epiphany”. Archived from the unique on September 23, 2016. Retrieved December 27, 2017.

^ Hastings, James; Selbie, John A., eds. (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 6. Kessinger Publishing Company. pp. 603–604. ISBN 978-zero-7661-3676-2. Archived from the authentic on November 22, 2018. Retrieved February three, 2012.

^ Kelly, Joseph F., The Origins of Christmas, Liturgical Press, 2004, pp. 67–69.

^ “Bruma Archived October 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine”, Seasonal Festivals of the Greeks and RomansPliny the Elder, Natural History, 18:fifty nine

^ Michael Alan Anderson, Symbols of Saints (ProQuest 2008 ISBN 978-0-54956551-2), pp. forty five–46

^ Augustine, Sermon 192 Archived November 25, 2016, on the Wayback Machine.

^ Roll, Susan K. (1995). Towards the Origin of Christmas. Kok Pharos Publishing. p. eighty two, cf. be aware one hundred fifteen. ISBN 978-ninety-390-0531-6. Archived from the original on December 31, 2015. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

^ Newton, Isaac, Observations at the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John Archived September 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (1733). Ch. XI. A solar connection is possible due to the fact Christians considered Jesus to be the “Sun of righteousness” prophesied in Malachi 4:2: “But for you who fear my name, the solar of righteousness shall upward thrust with recovery in its wings. You shall exit leaping like calves from the stall.”

^ a b Hijmans, S.E., Sol, the solar in the art and religions of Rome, 2009, p. 595. ISBN 978-ninety-367-3931-3 Archived May 10, 2013, on the Wayback Machine

^ a b Bradshaw, Paul F., “Christmas” Archived January nine, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The New SCM Dictionary of Liturgy of Worship, Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd., 2002.

^ Roll, pp. 88–ninety.Duchesne, Louis, Les Origines du Culte Chrétien, Paris, 1902, 262 ff.

^ Andrew McGowan. “How December 25 Became Christmas”. Bible Review & Bible History Daily. Biblical Archaeology Society. Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2011.

^ “Annunciation”, New Catholic Encyclopedia 2nd edition, 2003, Catholic University of America Press.

^ 1 Corinthians 5:7–eight: “Our paschal lamb, Christ, has been sacrificed. Therefore allow us to rejoice the competition…”Tally, pp. 2–four.

^ Roll, p. 87.

^ Roll (1995), p. 88

^ Collinge, William J. (2012). Historical Dictionary of Catholicism. ISBN 9780810857551. Archived from the authentic on December 31, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2014.

^ Hippolytus and December 25th because the date of Jesus’ start Archived September 13, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Roll (1995), p. 87.

^ Kelly, Joseph F. (2004). The Origins of Christmas. Liturgical Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-zero-8146-2984-zero. Online here [1] Archived February 19, 2017, on the Wayback Machine.

^ Pearse, Roger (December 26, 2019). “Some notes on “De solstitiis et aequinoctis” (CPL 2277)”. Roger Pearse. Retrieved April 9, 2021.

^ Roll, Susan K. (1995). Towards the Origin of Christmas. Kok Pharos Publishing. p. 97, cf. note 173. ISBN 978-ninety-390-0531-6. Archived from the unique on April nine, 2021. Retrieved April nine, 2021.

^ a b Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-280290-three), article “Christmas”.

^ Senn, Frank C. (2012). Introduction to Christian Liturgy. ISBN 9781451424331. Archived from the authentic on December 31, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2014.

^ (noted in Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries, Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p. a hundred and fifty five).

^ “Christmas Archived August 31, 2009, on the Wayback Machine”, Encarta. 2009-10-31.Roll, Susan K. (1995). Toward the Origins of Christmas. Peeters Publishers. p. a hundred thirty. ISBN 9789039005316. Archived from the original on November 2, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.

^ Tighe, William J. (2003). “Calculating Christmas”. Touchstone. sixteen (10). Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 17, 2008.

^ Hermann Usener, Das Weihnachtsfest. In: Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen, part 1. Second version. Verlag von Max Cohen & Sohn, Bonn 1911.(Note that the primary version, 1889, would not have the dialogue of Natalis Solis Invicti); additionally Sol Invictus (1905).

^ Talley, Thomas J. (1991). The Origins of the Liturgical Year. Liturgical Press. pp. 88–ninety one. ISBN 978-0-8146-6075-1. Retrieved December 27, 2016.

^ “Although this view continues to be very commonplace, it’s been seriously challenged” – Church of England Liturgical Commission, The Promise of His Glory: Services and Prayers for the Season from All Saints to Candlemas (Church House Publishing 1991 ISBN 978-zero-71513738-three) quoted in “The Date of Christmas and Epiphany” Archived April 6, 2015, on the Wayback Machine.

^ Hijmans, S.E. (2009). The Sun within the Art and Religions of Rome. p. 588. ISBN 978-90-367-3931-3. Archived from the unique on May 10, 2013.

^ Michael Alan Anderson, Symbols of Saints: Theology, ritual, and kinship in music for John the Baptist and St. Anne (1175–1563) The University of Chicago, UMI / ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, Ann Arbor 2008, pp. forty two–forty six, ISBN 978-0-54956551-2.

^ Tucker, Karen B. Westerfield (2000). “Christmas”.In Hastings, Adrian; Mason, Alistair; Pyper, Hugh (eds.). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-zero-19-860024-4.

^ a b c d e f g Murray, Alexander, “Medieval Christmas” Archived December thirteen, 2011, on the Wayback Machine, History Today, December 1986, 36 (12), pp. 31 – 39.

^ a b Standiford, Les (2008). The Man Who Invented Christmas: How Charles Dickens’s A Christmas Carol Rescued His Career and Revived Our Holiday Spirits. Crown. ISBN 978-0-307-40578-4.

^ a b Minzesheimer, Bob (December 22, 2008). “Dickens’ classic ‘Christmas Carol’ nevertheless sings to us”. USA Today. Archived from the authentic on November 6, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2010.

^ Neal, Daniel (1822). The History of the Puritans. William Baynes and Son. p. 193. They disapproved of the statement of sundry of the church-fairs or vacations, as having no basis in Scripture, or primitive antiquity.

^ a b c d Barnett, James Harwood (1984). The American Christmas: A Study in National Culture. Ayer Publishing. p. three. ISBN 978-zero-405-07671-8.

^ “Christmas – An Ancient Holiday” Archived May 9, 2007, on the Wayback Machine, The History Channel, 2007.

^ a b Simek (2007:379).

^ Coffman, Elesha. “Why December 25?” Christian History & Biography, Christianity Today, 2000.

^ Simek (2010:one hundred eighty, 379–380).

^ Weiser, Franz Xaver (1958). Handbook of Christian Feasts and Customs. Harcourt.

^ “Koliada”. Retrieved November 19, 2012.

^ a b McGreevy, Patrick. “Place within the American Christmas,” (JSTOR Archived December 15, 2018, at the Wayback Machine), Geographical Review, Vol. 80, No. 1. January 1990, pp. 32–42. Retrieved September 10, 2007.

^ a b c Restad, Penne L. (1995). Christmas in America: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-zero-19-510980-1.

^ a b c Forbes, Bruce David, Christmas: a candid records, University of California Press, 2007, ISBN 0-520-25104-zero, pp. 68–79.

^ Lowe, Scott C. (January eleven, 2011). Christmas. John Wiley & Sons. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-4443-4145-4.

^ Shawcross, John T. (January 1, 1993). John Milton. University Press of Kentucky. p. 249. ISBN 978-zero-8131-7014-5. Milton changed into raised an Anglican, educated to come to be an Anglican minister, and remained an Anglican thru the signing of the subscription books of Cambridge University in each 1629 and 1632, which demanded an allegiance to the nation church and its Thirty-nine Articles.

^ Browne, Sammy R. A Brief Anthology of English Literature, Volume 1. p. 412. ISBN 978-1-105-70569-four. His father had desired him to practice law however Milton taken into consideration writing poetry his existence’s paintings. At 21 years antique, he wrote a poem, “On the morning of Christ’s Nativity,” a work this is nevertheless broadly read at some point of Christmas.

^ Heinz, Donald (2010). Christmas: Festival of Incarnation. Fortress Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-4514-0695-five.

^ Old, Hughes Oliphant (2002). Worship: Reformed According to Scripture. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-zero-664-22579-7. Within a few years the Reformed church calendar became pretty well hooked up. The heart of it become the weekly observance of the resurrection at the Lord’s Day. Instead of liturgical seasons being found, “the five evangelical dinner party days” have been determined: Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost. They had been chosen due to the fact they had been understood to mark the essential degrees within the records of salvation.

^ Old, Hughes Oliphant (2002). Worship: Reformed According to Scripture. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-zero-664-22579-7.

^ Carl Philipp Emanuel Nothaft (October 2011). “From Sukkot to Saturnalia: The Attack on Christmas in Sixteenth-Century Chronological Scholarship”. Journal of the History of Ideas. 72 (4): 504–505. JSTOR 41337151. However, whilst Thomas Mocket, rector of Gilston in Hertfordshire, decried such vices in a pamphlet to justify the parliamentary ‘ban’ of Christmas, powerful because June 1647…

^ Sandys, William (1852). Christmastide: its records, festivities and carols. London: John Russell Smith. pp. 119–a hundred and twenty.

^ Chambers, Robert (1885). Domestic Annals of Scotland, p. 211.

^ “Act dischairging the Yule vacance”. The Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707. (in Middle Scots). St Andrews: University of St Andrews and National Archives of Scotland. Archived from the authentic on May 19, 2012. Retrieved February 29, 2012.

^ Houston, Rab; Houston, Robert Allan (2008). Scotland: a completely short creation. Very quick introductions. 197. Oxford University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-19-923079-2. Retrieved February 29, 2012.

^ Miall, Anthony & Peter (1978). The Victorian Christmas Book. Dent. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-460-12039-five.

^ Woodforde, James (1978). The Diary of a Country Parson 1758–1802. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-zero-19-281241-four.

^ Innes, Stephen (1995). Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-393-03584-1.

^ Marling, Karal Ann (2000). Merry Christmas!: Celebrating America’s Greatest Holiday. Harvard University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-zero-674-00318-7.

^ Smith Thomas, Nancy (2007). Moravian Christmas within the South. p. 20. ISBN 978-zero-8078-3181-6.

^ Andrews, Peter (1975). Christmas in Colonial and Early America. United States: World Book Encyclopedia, Inc. ISBN 978-zero-7166-2001-3.

^ Christmas in France. World Book Encyclopedia. 1996. p. 35. ISBN 978-zero-7166-0876-nine. Carols were altered by substituting names of prominent political leaders for royal characters in the lyrics, which include the Three Kings. Church bells had been melted down for his or her bronze to growth the country wide treasury, and spiritual services were banned on Christmas Day. The cake of kings, too, got here under attack as a image of royalty. It survived, but, for some time with a new call—the cake of equality.

^ Mason, Julia (December 21, 2015). “Why Was Christmas Renamed ‘Dog Day’ During the French Revolution?”. HistoryBuff. Archived from the authentic on November 1, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2016. How did human beings have fun the Christmas all through the French Revolution? In white-knuckled terror in the back of closed doorways. Anti-clericalism reached its apex on 10 November 1793, whilst a Fête de los angeles Raison turned into held in honor of the Cult of Reason. Churches throughout France were renamed “Temples of Reason” and the Notre Dame turned into “de-baptized” for the event. The Commune spared no price: “The first competition of purpose, which passed off in Notre Dame, featured a fabricated mountain, with a temple of philosophy at its summit and a script borrowed from an opera libretto. At the sound of Marie-Joseph Chénier’s Hymne à la Liberté, two rows of young girls, dressed in white, descended the mountain, crossing every other before the ‘altar of reason’ earlier than ascending over again to greet the goddess of Liberty.” As you can probable acquire from the above description, 1793 changed into no longer a amazing time to celebrate Christmas within the capital.

^ Anon (May 22, 2007). “Bank Holiday Fact File” (PDF). TUC press release. TUC. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2010.

^ Hutton, Ronald (February 15, 2001). The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-zero-19-157842-7.

^ Forbes, Bruce David (October 1, 2008). Christmas: A Candid History. –University of California Press. p. sixty two. ISBN 978-zero-520-25802-0. What Dickens did advocate in his story turned into “the spirit of Christmas”. Sociologist James Barnett has described it as Dickens’s “Carol Philosophy”, which “blended non secular and secular attitudes in the direction of to party right into a humanitarian sample. It excoriated character selfishness and extolled the virtues of brotherhood, kindness, and generosity at Christmas. … Dickens preached that at Christmas men ought to forget self and think of others, specifically the terrible and the unfortunate.” The message turned into one which both non secular and secular people could endorse.

^ Kelly, Richard Michael, ed. (2003). A Christmas Carol. Broadview Press. pp. nine, 12. ISBN 978-1-55111-476-7.

^ Cochrane, Robertson. Wordplay: origins, meanings, and utilization of the English language. University of Toronto Press, 1996, p. 126, ISBN 0-8020-7752-8.

^ Hutton, Ronald, The Stations of the Sun: The Ritual Year in England. 1996. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 113. ISBN 0-19-285448-eight.

^ Joe L. Wheeler. Christmas in My Heart, Volume 10, p. 97. Review and Herald Pub Assoc, 2001. ISBN zero-8280-1622-4.

^ Earnshaw, Iris (November 2003). “The History of Christmas Cards”. Inverloch Historical Society Inc. Archived from the original on May 26, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2008.

^ The Girlhood of Queen Victoria: a choice from Her Majesty’s diaries, p. 61. Longmans, Green & Co., 1912. University of Wisconsin.

^ Lejeune, Marie Claire. Compendium of symbolic and formality flora in Europe, p.550. University of Michigan ISBN ninety-77135-04-9.

^ a b Shoemaker, Alfred Lewis. (1959) Christmas in Pennsylvania: a people-cultural look at. Edition 40. pp. fifty two, 53. Stackpole Books 1999. ISBN 0-8117-0328-2.

^ Godey’s Lady’s Book, 1850. Godey’s copied it precisely, besides he eliminated the Queen’s tiara, and Prince Albert’s moustache, to remake the engraving into an American scene.

^ Kelly, Richard Michael (ed.) (2003), A Christmas Carol, p. 20. Broadview Literary Texts, New York: Broadview Press, ISBN 1-55111-476-three.

^ Moore’s poem transferred the real old Dutch traditions celebrated at New Year in New York, together with the alternate of presents, own family feasting, and tales of “sinterklass” (a derivation in Dutch from “Saint Nicholas”, from whence comes the contemporary “Santa Claus”) to Christmas.The history of Christmas: Christmas records in America Archived April 19, 2018, on the Wayback Machine, 2006.

^ “Americans Celebrate Christmas in Diverse Ways” Archived December 10, 2006, on the Wayback Machine,, November 26, 2006.

^ First Presbyterian Church of Watertown “Oh … and one greater thing” December eleven, 2005Archived February 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine

^ a b c Restad, Penne L. (1995), Christmas in America: a History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. ninety six. ISBN zero-19-510980-5.

^ “Christian church of God – records of Christmas”. Archived from the original on December 19, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2011.

^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 148 ISBN 0-471-29198-6.

^ Jacob R. Straus (November sixteen, 2012). “Federal Holidays: Evolution and Current Practices” (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the unique on January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014.

^ Weightman, Gavin; Humphries, Steve (1987). Christmas Past. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. p. 31.

^ Harding, Patrick (2003). The Xmas Files: Facts Behind the Myths and Magic of Christmas. London: Metro Publishing.

^ “When turned into the final time football fits in Britain were performed on Christmas Day?”. The Guardian. Archived from the authentic on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 23, 2014.

^ Connelly, Mark (2000). Christmas on the Movies: Images of Christmas in American, British and European Cinema. I.B.Tauris. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-86064-397-2. A chapter on representations of Christmas in Soviet cinema could, in fact be the shortest in this series: suffice it to say that there had been, as a minimum officially, no Christmas celebrations within the atheist socialist nation after its foundation in 1917.

^ Ramet, Sabrina Petra (November 10, 2005). Religious Policy inside the Soviet Union. Cambridge University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-521-02230-nine. The League sallied forth to store the day from this putative spiritual revival. Antireligioznik obliged with such a lot of articles that it committed a whole phase of its annual index for 1928 to anti-spiritual training in the schools. More such cloth observed in 1929, and a flood of it the next yr. It encouraged what Lenin and others earlier had explicitly condemned—carnivals, farces, and games to intimidate and purge the children of non secular notion. It advised that scholars campaign against customs associated with Christmas (together with Christmas bushes) and Easter. Some colleges, the League approvingly pronounced, staged an anti-spiritual day at the thirty first of each month. Not teachers however the League’s local set the programme for this unique event.

^ Zugger, Christopher Lawrence (2001). Catholics of the Soviet Empire from Lenin Through Stalin. Syracuse University Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-8156-0679-6. As located by Nicholas Brianchaninov, writing in 1929–1930, after the NEP and just because the worst of collectivization turned into starting, the Soviets deemed it essential to force into the heads of the human beings the axiom that faith was the synthesis of the whole thing most harmful to humanity. It have to be supplied because the enemy of guy and society, of existence and learning, of progress. … In caricatures, articles, Bezbozhnik, Antireligioznik, League of Militant Atheists propaganda and films. School guides [had been deliver] on accomplishing the war against faith (a way to profane a church, spoil windows, items of piety). The young, constantly keen to be with the present day fashion, often spoke back to such propaganda. In Moscow in 1929 youngsters had been introduced to spit on the crucifixes at Christmas. Priests in Tiraspol diocese had been on occasion betrayed through their personal younger parishioners, main to their imprisonment or even death, and tearing their households aside.

^ Goldberg, Carey (January 7, 1991). “A Russian Christmas—Better Late Than Never : Soviet Union: Orthodox Church celebration is the primary below Communists. But, as with maximum of Yeltsin’s pronouncements, the holiday stirs an issue”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2014. For the first time in greater than seven decades, Christmas—celebrated today by means of Russian Orthodox Christians—is a full country holiday across Russia’s full-size and snowy expanse. As part of Russian Federation President Boris N. Yeltsin’s ambitious plan to revive the traditions of Old Russia, the republic’s legislature declared closing month that Christmas, lengthy disregarded underneath atheist Communist ideology, have to be written lower back into the general public calendar. “The Bolsheviks changed crosses with hammers and sickles,” stated Vyacheslav S. Polosin, head of the Russian legislature’s committee on faith. “Now they are being changed back.”

^ Perry, Joseph (December 24, 2015). “How the Nazis co-opted Christmas: A history of propaganda”. The Washington Post. Archived from the authentic on January 6, 2016. Retrieved March eleven, 2016.

^ “Somalia joins Brunei with the aid of banning Christmas celebrations ‘to guard Islam'”. The Daily Telegraph. December 24, 2015. Archived from the unique on May 29, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2018.

^ Jespersen, Knud J. V. (June 21, 2011). A History of Denmark. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. ninety one. ISBN 9780230344174. It is quite normal to visit church on Christmas Eve, and many human beings like to rejoice a christening or wedding ceremony in church. The Church is in particular critical at the give up of a life; by means of a long way the bulk of funerals are nonetheless conducted in a church via a minister.

^ “2018 Worship and Music Planning Calendar”. The United Methodist Church. 2018. Retrieved December nine, 2018.

^ Stetzer, Ed (December 14, 2015). “What Is Church Attendance Like During Christmastime? New Data From LifeWay Research”. Christianity Today. Archived from the unique on January 29, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2018.

^ Bingham, John (October 27, 2016). “British households most effective attend church at Christmas, new figures advise”. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2017.

^ Collins, Ace, Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas, Zondervan, (2003), ISBN zero-310-24880-nine p.forty seven.

^ Internet Archive Susan Topp Weber, Nativities of the World, Gibbs Smith, 2013

^ “Alla scoperta dei cinque presepi più belli di Christmas Bologna unique on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

^ “Presepi in Liguria: provincia di Genova, Tigullio -sito di Paolino”. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

^ “Holidays on the Museums : Carnegie Museum of Natural History”. November 26, 2013. Archived from the authentic on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

^ Bershad, David; Carolina Mangone, The Christian Travelers Guide to Italy, Zondervan, 2001.

^ “The Provençal Nativity Scene”. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

^ Seaburg, Carl, Celebrating Christmas: An Anthology, iUniverse, 2003.

^ Bowler, Gerry, The World Encyclopedia of Christmas, Random House LLC, 2012.

^ Carol King (December 24, 2012). “A Christmas Living Nativity Scene in Sicily”. Italy Magazine. Archived from the original on December 26, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

^ Collins p. 83.

^ Nowak, Claire (December 23, 2019). “The Real Reason Why Christmas Colors Are Green and Red”. Reader’s Digest. Retrieved December 18, 2020.

^ Norris, Rebecca (October 29, 2019). “Here’s the History Behind Why Red and Green Are the Traditional Christmas Colors”. Country Living. Retrieved December 18, 2020.

^ Collins, Ace (April 1, 2010). Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Zondervan. ISBN 978-zero-310-87388-four. Retrieved December 2, 2010.

^ Senn, Frank C. (2012). Introduction to Christian Liturgy. Fortress Press. p. 118. ISBN 9781451424331. The Christmas tree as we are aware of it seemed to emerge in Lutheran lands in Germany within the sixteenth century. Although no specific metropolis or town has been diagnosed because the first to have a Christmas tree, statistics for the Cathedral of Strassburg indicate that a Christmas tree was set up in that church in 1539 at some point of Martin Bucer’s superintendency.

^ “The Christmas Tree”. Lutheran Spokesman. 29–32. 1936. The Christmas tree became a giant custom among German Lutherans through the eighteenth century.

^ Kelly, Joseph F. (2010). The Feast of Christmas. Liturgical Press. p. 94. ISBN 9780814639320. German Lutherans introduced the decorated Christmas tree with them; the Moravians positioned lighted candles on those bushes.

^ Blainey, Geoffrey (October 24, 2013). A Short History of Christianity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 418. ISBN 9781442225909. Many Lutherans persevered to set up a small fir tree as their Christmas tree, and it must were a seasonal sight in Bach’s Leipzig at a time whilst it changed into genuinely unknown in England, and little known in the ones farmlands of North America in which Lutheran immigrants congregated.

^ Mandryk, DeeAnn (October 25, 2005). Canadian Christmas Traditions. James Lorimer & Company. p. sixty seven. ISBN 9781554390984. The 8-pointed big name became a popular manufactured Christmas ornament around the 1840s and many people location a star at the pinnacle of their Christmas tree to represent the Star of Bethlehem.

^ Wells, Dorothy (1897). “Christmas in Other Lands”. The School Journal. fifty five: 697–8. Christmas is the occasional of circle of relatives reunions. Grandmother continually has the area of honor. As the time methods for taking part in the tree, she gathers her grandchildren about her, to inform them the tale of the Christ child, with the that means of the Christ toddler, with the meaning of the Christmas tree; how the evergreen is meant to represent the existence eternal, the candle lights to remember the mild of the arena, and the famous person on the top of the tree is to remind them of the megastar of Bethlehem.

^ Jones, David Albert (October 27, 2011). Angels. Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780191614910. The equal ambiguity is visible in that maximum familiar of angels, the angel on top of the Christmas tree. This decoration, popularized within the 19th century, recalls the vicinity of the angels in the Christmas story (Luke 2.9–18).

^ a b van Renterghem, Tony. When Santa was a shaman. St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. ISBN 1-56718-765-X.

^ Fritz Allhoff, Scott C. Lowe (2010). Christmas. John Wiley & Sons. His biographer, Eddius Stephanus, relates that whilst Boniface became serving as a missionary close to Geismar, Germany, he had sufficient of the locals’ reverence for the antique gods. Taking an awl to an okaytree devoted to Norse god Thor, Boniface chopped the tree down and dared Thor to zap him for it. When not anything befell, Boniface pointed out a younger fir tree amid the roots of the o.k.and explained how this tree became a extra becoming object of reverence because it pointed in the direction of the Christian heaven and its triangular form turned into harking back to the Christian trinity.

^ Harper, Douglas, Christ Archived May nine, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001.

^ “The Chronological History of the Christmas Tree”. The Christmas Archives. Archived from the unique on December 21, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2007.

^ “Christmas Tradition – The Christmas Tree Custom”. Fashion Era. Archived from the authentic on December 18, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2007.

^ Hewitson, Carolyn (2013). Festivals. Routledge. ISBN 9781135057060. It is said to resemble the big name of Bethlehem. The Mexicans name it the flower of the Holy Night, however commonly it’s far known as poinsettia after the person who introduced it to America, Dr Joel Poinsett.

^ “The Legends and Traditions of Holiday Plants”. Archived from the original on January 22, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.

^ “StackPath”. Retrieved December 23, 2020.

^ “Germany’s Advent wreath culture, and how to make one among your personal”. Stripes Europe. November 21, 2019. Retrieved December 23, 2020.

^ “Liturgical Year : Symbolic Lights and Fires of Christmas (Activity)”. Catholic Culture. Archived from the authentic on January 13, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2011.

^ Murray, Brian. “Christmas lighting and network constructing in America,” History Matters, Spring 2006. Archived June 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine

^ “Epiphany: Should Christmas decorations come down on 6 January?”. BBC News. January 6, 2017. Retrieved December 23, 2020.

^ a b c d e Collins, Ace (2010). Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Zondervan. pp. 139–141. ISBN 9780310873884.

^ Miles, Clement, Christmas customs and traditions, Courier Dover Publications, 1976, ISBN zero-486-23354-five, p. 32.

^ Dudley-Smith, Timothy (1987). A Flame of Love. London: Triangle/SPCK. ISBN 978-zero-281-04300-2.

^ a b c d e f g h i Smolko, Joanna (February 4, 2012). “Christmas song”. Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2227990.

^ Broomfield, Andrea (2007), Food and Cooking in Victorian England: A History, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, pp. 149–a hundred and fifty.

^ Muir, Frank (1977), Christmas customs & traditions, Taplinger Pub. Co., 1977, p. fifty eight.

^ “Carp for Christmas: the peculiar Central European way of life explained”. Kafkadesk. December nine, 2018.

^ “Christmas card offered for record rate” Archived February five, 2006, on the Wayback Machine, BBC News. Retrieved October 28, 2011.

^ Pruitt, Sarah. “The War of Words in the back of ‘Happy Holidays'”. HISTORY. Retrieved December 24, 2020.

^ Collins, Ace (April 20, 2010). Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Zondervan. p. 17. ISBN 9780310873884. Retrieved April 10, 2012. The legend of St. Nicholas, who have become the bishop of Myra within the beginning of the fourth century, is the following hyperlink in the Christmas-gift chain. Legend has it that during his lifestyles the priest rode across Asia Minor bestowing items upon negative kids.

^ Trexler, Richard (May 23, 1997). The Journey of the Magi: Meanings in History of a Christian Story. Princeton University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0691011264. Archived from the original on December 31, 2015. Retrieved April 10, 2012. This alternate network of ceremonial welcome become mirrored in a second reciprocity permitting early Christians to assume their personal magi: the phenomenon of giving gifts.

^ Collins, Ace (April 20, 2010). Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Zondervan. p. 17. ISBN 9780310873884. Retrieved April 10, 2012. Most humans these days hint the practice of giving gifts on Christmas Day to the three items that the Magi gave to Jesus.

^ Berking, Helmuth (March 30, 1999). Sociology of Giving. SAGE Publications. p. 14. ISBN 978-zero-85702-613-2. For the Enlightenment educationalist, gift-giving became out to be a relic of a pagan custom, specifically, the Roman Saturnalia. After the creation of the Julian calendar in Rome, the twenty fifth of December became the day of Sol invictus whilst human beings greeted the wintry weather solstice. It was the day of the Sun’s rebirth, and it became the day of the Christmas festivities – although it turned into only in the 12 months 336 AD that it seems to have turn out to be set up because the day of Jesus’s birth (see Pannenberg 1989: fifty seven). The Eastern Church adopted this date even later, closer to the stop of the 4th century, having formerly appeared the sixth of January as the day of gift-giving, because it still is within the Italian network of Befana. The iciness solstice was a time of joyful celebration in every traditional culture, and the Christian Christmas likely took its vicinity inside this legendary context of the solar cult. Its center dogma of the Incarnation, but, solidly hooked up the giving and receiving of presents because the structural principle of that recurrent yet unique event. ‘Children have been given provides because the Jesus child obtained gifts from the magi or kings who got here from afar to adore him. But in fact it turned into they, together with all their fellow guys, who obtained the gift of God thru man’s renewed participation inside the divine life’ (ibid.: 61).

^ Seward, Pat; Lal, Sunandini Arora (2006). Netherlands. Marshall Cavendish. p. 116. ISBN 978-zero-7614-2052-1. Until pretty recently, the celebrations focused totally on Saint Nicholas, or Sinterklaas (SIN-ter-klahs), as the Dutch call him. … Interestingly, the American Santa Claus changed into born out of the Dutch Sinterklaas.

^ Domenico, Roy Palmer (2002). The areas of Italy: a reference guide to history and subculture. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-313-30733-1. Saint Nicholas (Bishop of Myra) changed Sabino as the customer saint of the metropolis… A Greek from what’s now Turkey, he lived within the early fourth century.

^ Collins, Ace (2009). Stories Behind Men of Faith. Zondervan. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-310-56456-zero. Retrieved June 20, 2015. Nicholas become born within the Greek metropolis of Patara around 270 AD. The son of a businessman named Theophanes and his wife, Nonna, the child’s earliest years have been spent in Myra… As a port on the Mediterranean Sea, inside the center of the sea lanes that related Egypt, Greece and Rome, Myra become a vacation spot for investors, fishermen, and merchant sailors. Spawned through the spirit of both the city’s Greek historical past and the ruling Roman authorities, cultural endeavors which includes artwork, drama, and track had been mainstays of normal existence.

^ Jona Lendering (November 20, 2008). “Saint Nicholas, Sinterklaas, Santa Claus”. Archived from the unique on May 13, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2011.

^ “St. Basil (330–379)”. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved February three, 2012.

^ Matera, Mariane. “Santa: The First Great Lie” Archived September 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Citybeat, Issue 304.

^ “Kto przynosi Wam prezenty? Św. Mikołaj, Gwiazdor, Aniołek, Dzieciątko czy może Dziadek Mróz?”. Bezprawnik (in Polish). December 22, 2016. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2017.

^ “Nie tylko Mikołaj, czyli kto według tradycji rozdaje prezenty w różnych regionach Polski?”. (in Polish). Archived from the original on December 24, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2017.

^ “Christmas in Bethlehem”. Archived from the original on June sixteen, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.

^ Siegbert Uhlig, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica He-N, p. 538

^ Varga, Melody. “Black Friday, About:Retail Industry. Archived May 17, 2008, on the Wayback Machine

^ “Definition Christmas Creep – What is Christmas Creep”. November 2, 2010. Archived from the authentic on December 27, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2011.

^ “South Molton and Brook Street Christmas Lights” Archived November 19, 2010, on the Wayback Machine (November sixteen, 2010), View kingdom.

^ a b Kollewe, Julia, (November 29, 2010), “West End spree worth £250m marks begin of Christmas buying season” Archived December 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian.

^ Gwen Outen (December three, 2004). “ECONOMICS REPORT – Holiday Shopping Season within the U.S.” Voice of America. Archived from the unique on March 3, 2009.

^ US Census Bureau. “Facts. The Holiday Season” December 19, 2005. (accessed November 30, 2009) Archived reproduction at the Library of Congress (May 7, 2010).

^ US Census 2005.

^ Haury, Amanda C. (November 8, 2019). “Average Cost of an American Christmas”. Investopedia. Dotdash. Retrieved December 17, 2019.

^ “The Deadweight Loss of Christmas”, American Economic Review, December 1993, eighty three (5).

^ “Is Santa a deadweight loss?” Archived December 21, 2005, at the Wayback Machine The Economist December 20, 2001.

^ Reuters. “Christmas is Damaging the Environment, Report Says” Archived March 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, December 16, 2005.

^ Harper, Timothy (1999). Moscow Madness: Crime, Corruption, and One Man’s Pursuit of Profit inside the New Russia. McGraw-Hill. p. 72. ISBN 9780070267008.

^ “Marta Patiño, The Puritan Ban on Christmas”. Archived from the authentic on March 1, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2011.

^ Christmas inside the Colonies Archived December 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Time. Retrieved December 25, 2011.

^ Todd, Margo (2002). The Culture of Protestantism in Early Modern Scotland. Yale University Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-300-09234-nine.

^ Goldberg, Carey (January 7, 1991). “A Russian Christmas—Better Late Than Never : Soviet Union: Orthodox Church Celebration Is the First Under Communists. But, as with Most of Yeltsin’s Pronouncements, the Holiday Stirs a Controversy”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2016.

^ Woolf, Nicky (December 24, 2015). “Christmas celebrations banned in Somalia, Tajikistan and Brunei”. The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2016.

^ “ACLJ, Christmas laws”. Archived from the unique on December 25, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

^ Christmas controversy article – Muslim Canadian Congress.[lifeless hyperlink]

^ Feder, Don, “In the tradition, Christmas morphs into holiday” Archived April 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Jewish World Review, December 13, 2000.

^ “The Brits Have It Right: Forget Happy Holidays, Just Wish People Merry Christmas”. The Guardian. London. August 11, 2016. Archived from the authentic on December 21, 2016. Retrieved December eleven, 2016.

^ Jankowski, Paul (August eleven, 2016). “Is Saying ‘Merry Christmas’ Politically Correct? Who Cares?”. Forbes. Archived from the authentic on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2017.

^ “If We Can’t Say ‘Merry Christmas’ in Canada, Multiculturalism Failed”. HuffPost. August 11, 2016. Archived from the authentic on September 29, 2016. Retrieved August eleven, 2016.

^ “Lynch vs. Donnelly”. 1984. Archived from the unique on February 16, 2006. Retrieved April 12, 2006.

^ Mujahid, Abdul Malik. “Treating Christmas with respect Archived April 5, 2017, on the Wayback Machine,” Sound Vision.

^ Dillon, Michael (2001). Religious Minorities and China. Minority Rights Group International.

^ Buang, Sa’eda; Chew, Phyllis Ghim-Lian (May 9, 2014). Muslim Education within the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives. Routledge. p. seventy five. ISBN 9781317815006. Subsequently, a new China become located on the premise of Communist ideology, i.e. atheism. Within the framework of this ideology, faith became handled as a ‘contorted’ world-view and people believed that religion might necessarily disappear on the quit, at the side of the development of human society. A collection of anti-non secular campaigns changed into carried out by using the Chinese Communist Party from the early 1950s to the past due Seventies. As a end result, in nearly 30 years among the start of the Fifties and the stop of the 1970s, mosques (as well as churches and Chinese temples) have been shut down and Imams involved in pressured ‘re-education’.

^ “Alarm over China’s Church crackdown”. BBC. December 18, 2018. Archived from the unique on January 5, 2019. Retrieved January eleven, 2019. Among those arrested are a outstanding pastor and his wife, of the Early Rain Covenant Church in Sichuan. Both had been charged with kingdom subversion. And on Saturday morning, dozens of police raided a kid’s Bible elegance at Rongguili Church in Guangzhou. One Christian in Chengdu advised the BBC: “I’m lucky they haven’t found me yet.” China is formally atheist, although says it lets in religious freedom.

^ “Santa Claus might not be coming to this town, as Chinese officers ban Christmas”. South China Morning Post. December 18, 2018. Archived from the unique on January 12, 2019. Retrieved January eleven, 2019. Christmas isn’t a known excursion in mainland China – where the ruling birthday celebration is officially atheist – and for many years authorities have taken a difficult stance on each person who celebrates it in public. … The statement through Langfang officers stated that anyone caught selling Christmas bushes, wreaths, stockings or Santa Claus figures within the city would be punished. … While the ban on the sale of Christmas goods may look like directed at stores, it additionally comes amid a crackdown on Christians working towards their faith across the united states. On Saturday morning, greater than 60 law enforcement officials and officials stormed a kid’s Bible magnificence in Guangzhou, capital of southern China’s Guangdong province. The incident came after authorities shut down the 1,500-member Zion Church in Beijing in September and Chengdu’s 500-member Early Rain Covenant Church remaining week. In the case of the latter, approximately a hundred worshippers have been snatched from their houses or from the streets in coordinated raids.

Further studyingBowler, Gerry, The World Encyclopedia of Christmas (October 2004: McClelland & Stewart). ISBN 978-0-7710-1535-9

Bowler, Gerry, Santa Claus: A Biography (November 2007: McClelland & Stewart). ISBN 978-zero-7710-1668-four

Comfort, David, Just Say Noel: A History of Christmas from the Nativity to the Nineties (November 1995: Fireside). ISBN 978-0-684-80057-eight

Count, Earl W., 4000 Years of Christmas: A Gift from the Ages (November 1997: Ulysses Press). ISBN 978-1-56975-087-2

Federer, William J., There Really Is a Santa Claus: The History of St. Nicholas & Christmas Holiday Traditions (December 2002: Amerisearch). ISBN 978-0-9653557-four-2

Kelly, Joseph F., The Origins of Christmas (August 2004: Liturgical Press). ISBN 978-0-8146-2984-0

Miles, Clement A., Christmas Customs and Traditions (1976: Dover Publications). ISBN 978-zero-486-23354-three

Nissenbaum, Stephen, The Battle for Christmas (1996; New York: Vintage Books, 1997). ISBN 0-679-74038-four

Restad, Penne L. (1995). Christmas in America: A History. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-zero-19-509300-1.

Rosenthal, Jim, St. Nicholas: A Closer Look at Christmas (July 2006: Nelson Reference). ISBN 1-4185-0407-6

Sammons, Peter (May 2006). The Birth of Christ. Glory to Glory Publications (UK). ISBN 978-zero-9551790-1-3.

“Christmas” . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (eleventh ed.). 1911. pp. 293–294.External linksChristmas: Its Origin and Associations, by using William Francis Dawson, 1902, from Project Gutenberg

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Statutory holidays forfederal employees

Easter Monday

Victoria Day


Remembrance Day

Boxing Day

Indigenous holidays


National Aboriginal Day


Other commonplace holidays

August Civic Holiday

Family Day/Heritage Day/Islander Day/Louis Riel Day

Memorial Day (Newfoundland and Labrador)

Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day (Quebec National Holiday)

National Patriots Day (Quebec National Holiday)vte

Public holidays in Hong Kong

New Year’s Day

Lunar New Year (first three days of the duration)

Ching Ming Festival

Good Friday

Holy Saturday

Easter Monday

Buddha’s Birthday

Labour Day

Tuen Ng Festival

Hong Kong SAR Establishment Day

Mid-Autumn Festival

PRC National Day

Chung Yeung Festival

Christmas Day

Boxing Day


Queen’s Birthday

Liberation Day

Double Ten Day

Remembrance Dayvte

Public holidays in Indonesia

New Year’s Day

Chinese New Year

Day of Silence

Isra and Mi’raj

Good Friday

Labour Day

Waisak Day

Ascension Day

Pancasila Day

Collective Days

Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Adha

Independence Day

Islamic New Year

Prophet’s Birthday



Public vacations inside the Republic of Ireland

New Year’s Day

Saint Patrick’s Day

Easter Monday

May Day

June Holiday

August Holiday

October Holiday

Christmas Day

Saint Stephen’s Dayvte

Public holidays in Malaysia

National vacations

Chinese New Year

Labour Day

Wesak Day

Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Adha

Merdeka Day


Agong’s Birthday

Malaysia Day

Muhammad’s Birthday


State vacations(vary via states)

New Year’s Day

Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sembilan’s Birthday

Sultan of Kedah’s Birthday


Federal Territory Day

Anniversary of Installation of the Sultan of Terengganu

Sultan of Johor’s Birthday

Isra and Mi’raj

Declaration of Malacca City as Historical City

Good Friday

Sultan of Terengganu’s Birthday

First Day of Ramadan

Day of Nuzul Al-Quran

Tadau Kaamatan

Gawai Dayak

Declaration of George Town as World Heritage Site

Penang State Governor’s Birthday

Raja of Perlis’s Birthday

Sarawak Independence Day

Hol Day of Sultan Iskandar of Johor

Sabah State Governor’s Birthday

Melaka State Governor’s Birthday

Sarawak State Governor’s Birthday

Sultan of Pahang’s Birthday


Sultan of Perak’s Birthday

Sultan of Kelantan’s Birthday

Sultan of Selangor’s Birthday

Christmas Evevte

Public vacations in Mexico

Statutory vacations

Año Nuevo

Día de l.a. Constitución

Natalicio de Benito Juárez

Día del Trabajo

Día de Independencia

Día de los angeles Revolución

Transmisión del Poder Ejecutivo Federal


Civic vacations

Día del Ejército

Día de l.a. Bandera

Aniversario de l.a. Expropiación petrolera

Heroica Defensa de Veracruz

Cinco de Mayo

Natalicio de Miguel Hidalgo

Día de los angeles Marina

Grito de Dolores

Día de los Niños Héroes

Consumación de l.a. Independencia

Natalicio de José Ma. Morelos y Pavón

Descubrimiento de América


Día de los Santos Reyes

Día de San Valentín

Día del Niño

Día de las Madres

Día del Maestro

Día del estudiante

Día del Padre

Día de Todos los Santos

Día de los Fieles Difuntos

Día de los angeles Virgen de Guadalupe

Las Posadas


Dia de los Santos Inocentesvte

Public vacations in Myanmar

National vacations

New Year’s Day

Independence Day

Karen New Year

Union Day

Peasants’ Day

Full Moon Day of Tabaung

Armed Forces Day


Labour Day

Full Moon Day of Kason

Martyrs’ Day

Full Moon Day of Kason

Full Moon Day of Thadingyut

Full Moon Day of Tazaungmon

National Day


New Year’s Eve

Eid al-Adha


Public vacations in New Zealand

New Year’s Day

January 2

Waitangi Day

Good Friday

Easter Sunday

Easter Monday

Anzac Day

Queen’s Birthday

Labour Day

Christmas Day

Boxing Dayvte

Public holidays inside the Philippines

Regular vacations

New Year’s Day

Maundy Thursday

Good Friday

Araw ng Kagitingan

Labor Day

Independence Day

Eid’l Fitr

National Heroes’ Day

Eid’l Adha

Bonifacio Day


Rizal Day

Special non-operating days

Chinese New Year

Black Saturday

Ninoy Aquino Day

All Saints’ Day and All Souls’ Day

Immaculate Conception

Christmas Eve

Last day of the yr

Special excursion (for colleges)

EDSA Revolution Anniversary

Italicized: Movable vacation


Public holidays in South Africa

New Year’s Day

Human Rights Day

Good Friday

Family Day

Freedom Day

Workers’ Day

Youth Day

National Women’s Day

Heritage Day

Day of Reconciliation

Christmas Day

Day of Goodwillvte

Public vacations in Sri Lanka


Thai Pongal

Duruthu Poya Day

Independence Day

Navam Poya Day

Maha Shivratri

Madin Poya Day


Sinhala and Tamil New Year Day eve

Sinhalese New Year/Tamil New Year

Bak Poya Day

Good Friday

May Day

Vesak Poya Day

Day following Vesak Poya Day

Id-Ul-Fitr (Ramazan Festival Day)

Poson Poya Day


Esala Poya Day

Id-Ul-Alha (Hadji Festival Day)

Nikini Poya Day

Binara Poya Day


Vap Poya Day

Deepavali Festival Day

Milad-Un-Nabi (Holy Prophet’s Birthday)

Ill Poya Day

Unduvap Poya Day

Christmas Dayvte

Public vacations in Thailand

National vacations

New Year’s Day

Magha Puja

Chakri Memorial Day


Labour Day

Royal Ploughing Ceremony and Farmer’s Day


King Vajiralongkorn’s Birthday

Asanha Bucha


Queen Sirikit’s Birthday

King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s Memorial Day

King Chulalongkorn Day

King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s Birthday

Constitution Day

New Year’s Eve

Region-based vacations

Chinese New Year

Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Adha


Public holidays in Ukraine

New Year’s Day (1 Jan)

(Julian) Christmas (7 Jan)

International Women’s Day (8 Mar)

Orthodox Easter (moveable)

Orthodox Pentecost (transportable)

Labour Day (1 May)

Victory Day over Nazism (nine May)

Constitution Day (28 June)

Independence Day (24 Aug)

Defender of Ukraine Day (14 Oct)

(Gregorian and Revised Julian) Christmas (25 Dec)vte

Public vacations in the United Kingdom

All regions

New Year’s Day

May Bank Holiday

Summer Bank Holiday

Christmas Day

Boxing Day

England and Wales

Good Friday

Easter Monday

Spring Bank Holiday

Northern Ireland

Saint Patrick’s Day

Easter Monday

Easter Tuesday

Spring Bank Holiday

Battle of the Boyne (Orangemen’s Day)


second January

Good Friday

St Andrew’s Day (elective)vte

Federal holidays inside the United States


New Year’s Day

Martin Luther King Jr. Day

Washington’s Birthday

Memorial Day


Independence Day

Labor Day

Columbus Day

Veterans Day

Thanksgiving Day

Christmas Day


Flag Day (1950)

Election Day/Democracy Day (1993, 2005, 2014)

Malcolm X Day (1993–1994)

Cesar Chavez Day (2008)

Susan B. Anthony Day (2011)

Native American Day (2013)vte

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States


New Year’s Day (federal)

Martin Luther King Jr. Day (federal)Birthday of Eugenio María de Hostos (PR)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX)

Eve of Three Kings’ Day (PR, spiritual)

Feast of Epiphany / Feast of Theophany (religious)

Fred Korematsu Day (CA, FL, HI, VA)

Idaho Human Rights Day (ID)

Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial)

Kansas Day (KS)

Makar Sankranti / Pongal (non secular)

Robert E. Lee Day (FL)

Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36)

The Eighth (LA)

Three Kings’ Day (PR, VI, religious)

World Religion Day (non secular)January–February

Super Bowl SundayChinese New Year / Lunar New Year (NY, cultural, spiritual)

Vasant Panchami (non secular)FebruaryAmerican Heart MonthBlack History Month

Washington’s Birthday (federal)

Valentine’s DayBirthday of Luis Muñoz Marín (PR)

Candlemas (spiritual)

Charles Darwin Day / Darwin Day (CA, DE)

Day of Remembrance (CA, OR, WA, cultural)

Georgia Day (GA)

Groundhog Day

Imbolc (religious)

Lincoln’s Birthday (CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NY, WV)

National Girls and Women in Sports Day

National Freedom Day (36)

Nirvana Day (religious)

Presentation of Our Lord to the Temple (spiritual)

Promised Reformer Day (spiritual)

Ronald Reagan Day (CA)

Rosa Parks Day (CA, MO)

Saviours’ Day (non secular)

Susan B. Anthony Day (CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

Tu B’shvat (spiritual)February–March

Mardi GrasAsh Wednesday (PR, non secular)

Carnival (PR, VI, non secular)

Clean Monday (non secular)

Courir de Mardi Gras (religious)

Intercalary Days (non secular)

Mahashivaratri (non secular)

Purim (non secular)

Shrove Tuesday (religious)

Super TuesdayMarchIrish-American Heritage MonthColon Cancer Awareness MonthWomen’s History Month

Saint Patrick’s Day (non secular)

Spring damage (week)Annunciation of the Virgin Mary / Annunciation of the Theotokos (spiritual)

Casimir Pulaski Day (IL)

Cesar Chavez Day (CA, CO, TX, proposed federal)

Emancipation Day in Puerto Rico (PR, cultural)

Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA)

Harriet Tubman Day (NY)

Hola Mohalla (spiritual)

Holi (NY, spiritual)

L. Ron Hubbard’s Birthday (non secular)

Lailat al-Mi’raj (non secular)

Liberation and Freedom Day (Charlottesville, VA, cultural)

Mardi Gras (AL (in two counties), LA)

Maryland Day (MD)

National Poison Prevention Week (week)

Nowruz (cultural, non secular)

Ostara (non secular)

Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI)

Promised Messiah Day (non secular)

Saint Joseph’s Day (spiritual)

Seward’s Day (AK)

Texas Independence Day (TX)

Town Meeting Day (VT)

Transfer Day (VI)March–April

Easter (spiritual)Good Friday (CT, NC, PR, NJ, VI, non secular)

Hanuman Jayanti (religious)

Holy Thursday (PR, VI, religious)

Holy Week (PR, spiritual, week)

Lazarus Saturday (religious)

Mahavir Janma Kalyanak (spiritual)

Mesha Sankranti / Hindu New Year (non secular)

Palm Sunday (PR, religious)

Passover (religious)

Easter Monday / Bright Monday (VI non secular)

Ramnavami (spiritual)

Chandramana Yugadi / Souramana Yugadi (spiritual)AprilConfederate History Month


April Fools’ Day

Arbor Day

Birthday of José de Diego (PR)

Confederate Memorial Day (AL, MS)

Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (week)

Earth Day

Emancipation Day (cultural)

Thomas Jefferson’s Birthday (AL)

Lag B’Omer (religious)

Last Friday of Great Lent (spiritual)

Laylat al-Qadr (non secular)

Pascua Florida (FL)

Patriots’ Day (MA, ME)

Ridván (spiritual)

San Jacinto Day (TX)

Siblings Day

Walpurgis Night (religious)

Yom Ha’atzmaut (cultural, non secular)

MayAsian Pacific American Heritage MonthJewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day (federal)

Mother’s Day (36)

Cinco de MayoAscension of Baháʼu’lláh (non secular)

Ascension of Our Lord (non secular)

Caliphate Day (religious)

Declaration of the Bab (spiritual)

Harvey Milk Day (CA)

International Workers’ Day / May Day (CA, unofficial, proposed state)

Law Day (36)

Loyalty Day (36)

Malcolm X Day (CA, IL, proposed federal)

Military Spouse Day

National Day of Prayer (36)

National Day of Reason

National Defense Transportation Day (36)

National Maritime Day (36)

Peace Officers Memorial Day (36)

Pentecost (non secular)

Shavuot (spiritual)

Truman Day (MO)

Vesak / Buddha’s Birthday (non secular)JuneLesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month

Juneteenth (federal, cultural)

Father’s Day (36)Bunker Hill Day (Suffolk County, MA)

Carolina Day (SC)

Fast of the Holy Apostles (non secular)

Flag Day (36, proposed federal)

Helen Keller Day (PA)

Honor America Days (three weeks)

Jefferson Davis Day (AL, FL)

Kamehameha Day (HI)

Litha (spiritual)

Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Sahib (non secular)

Odunde Festival (Philadelphia, PA, cultural)

Senior Week (week)

Saint John’s Day (PR, religious)

West Virginia Day (WV)July

Independence Day (federal)Asalha Puja Day (religious)

Birthday of Don Luis Muñoz Rivera (PR)

Birthday of Dr. José Celso Barbosa (PR)

Emancipation Day within the U.S. Virgin Islands (VI, cultural)

Guru Purnima (spiritual)

Khordad Sal (spiritual)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial, cultural)

Martyrdom of the Báb (non secular)

Parents’ Day (36)

Pioneer Day (UT)

Puerto Rico Constitution Day (PR)July–August

Summer excursionTisha B’Av (religious)August

American Family Day (AZ)

Barack Obama Day in Illinois (IL)

Bennington Battle Day (VT)

Dormition of the Theotokos (religious)

Eid-e-Ghadeer (non secular)

Fast in Honor of the Holy Mother of Lord Jesus (spiritual)

Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (spiritual)

Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI)

Krishna Janmashtami (spiritual)

Lammas (religious)

Lyndon Baines Johnson Day (TX)

Naga Panchami (spiritual)

National Aviation Day (36)

Paryushana (religious)

Raksha Bandhan (spiritual)

Transfiguration of the Lord (religious)

Victory Day (RI)

Women’s Equality Day (36)

SeptemberProstate Cancer Awareness MonthChildhood Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day (federal)Brazilian Day (NY, cultural)

California Admission Day (CA)

Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36)

Constitution Day (36)

Constitution Week (week)

Defenders Day (MD)

Elevation of the Holy Cross (spiritual)

Feast of San Gennaro (NY, cultural, spiritual)

Ganesh Chaturthi (spiritual)

Gold Star Mother’s Day (36)

His Holiness Sakya Trizin’s Birthday (spiritual)

Mabon (non secular)

National Grandparents Day (36)

National Payroll Week (week)

Nativity of Mary / Nativity of the Theotokos (non secular)

Native American Day (proposed federal)

Patriot Day (36)September–OctoberHispanic Heritage Month

Chehlum Imam Hussain (religious)


Pitri Paksha (non secular)

Rosh Hashanah / Feast of Trumpets (TX, NY, religious)

Shemini Atzeret (spiritual)

Simchat Torah (spiritual)

Vijaya Dashami (non secular)

Yom Kippur / Day of Atonement (TX, NY, spiritual)

OctoberBreast Cancer Awareness MonthDisability Employment Awareness Month Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month Filipino American History MonthLGBT History Month

Columbus Day (federal)

HalloweenAlaska Day (AK)

Child Health Day (36)

General Pulaski Memorial Day

German-American Day

Indigenous Peoples’ Day (VT)

International Day of Non-Violence

Leif Erikson Day (36)

Missouri Day (MO)

Nanomonestotse (cultural)

National School Lunch Week (week)

Native American Day in South Dakota (SD)

Nevada Day (NV)

Spirit Day (cultural)

Sweetest Day

Sukkot / Feast of Tabernacles (religious)

Virgin Islands–Puerto Rico Friendship Day (PR, VI)

White Cane Safety Day (36)October–November

Birth of the Báb (religious)

Birth of Baháʼu’lláh (spiritual)

Day of the Dead (VI)

Diwali (NY, religious)

Mawlid al-Nabi (spiritual)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day (federal)

Thanksgiving (federal)Ascension of ‘Abdu’l Baha (non secular)

All Saints’ Day (religious)

Beginning of the Nativity Fast (non secular)

Beltane / Samhain (religious)

Barack Obama Day in Alabama (Perry County, AL)

D. Hamilton Jackson Day (VI)

Day after Thanksgiving (24)

Day of the Covenant (non secular)

Discovery of Puerto Rico Day (PR)

Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, VA, WV, proposed federal)

Family Day (NV)

Guru Nanak Gurpurab (spiritual)

Hanukkah (spiritual)

Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial, cultural)

Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur (spiritual)

Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA, cultural)

Presentation of the Theotokos to the Temple (spiritual)

Unthanksgiving Day (cultural)December

Christmas (non secular, federal)

New Year’s EveAdvent Sunday (non secular)

Alabama Day (AL)

Birthday of Guru Gobind Singh Sahib (spiritual)

Bodhi Day (non secular)

Chalica (non secular)

Christmas Eve (KY, NC, SC, PR, VI)

Day after Christmas (KY, NC, SC, TX, VI)



Hanukkah (non secular, week)

Immaculate Conception (religious)

Indiana Day (IN)

Kwanzaa (cultural, week)

Milad Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin (non secular)

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day (36)

Nativity of Jesus (religious)

Old Year’s Night (VI)

Pan American Aviation Day (36)

Pancha Ganapati (spiritual, week)

Rosa Parks Day (OH, OR)

Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God (non secular)

Wright Brothers Day (36)

Yule (religious)

Zartosht No-Diso (spiritual)Varies (12 months round)

Eid al-Adha (NY, non secular)

Eid al-Fitr (NY, religious)

Islamic New Year (spiritual)

Yawm al-Arafa (non secular)

Hajj (spiritual)

Navaratri (non secular, 4 times a yr)

Obon (religious)

Onam (non secular)

Ramadan (non secular, month)

Ghost Festival (religious)

Yawm Aashura (religious)


(federal) = federal holidays, (abbreviation) = kingdom/territorial vacations, (religious) = spiritual holidays, (cultural) = excursion related to a particular racial/ethnic institution or sexual minority, (week) = week-lengthy vacations, (month) = month-lengthy holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies

Bold shows primary holidays commonly celebrated within the United States, which frequently constitute the principal celebrations of the month.

See additionally: Lists of holidays, Hallmark vacations, Public holidays in the United States, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.


Winter solstice and midwinter gala’s


Goru: Mali (Dogon)

Dzon’ku Nu†: West Africa (Papaws)


Inti Raymi°: Peru (Inca†)

Jonkonnu°: Caribbean° (African American)

Soyal: US (Zuni, Hopi)

We Tripantu: Chile (Mapuche)


Amaterasu†: Japan


Deygān, Maidyarem°: (Zoroastrian)

Dōngzhì, Tōji: (East Asian)

Lohri, Pongal, Makar Sankranti°: India (Hindu)

Sanghamitta Day: Sri Lanka (Buddhist)

Şeva Zistanê: (Kurdish)

Yalda: Iran (Persian)


Beiwe: (Saami)

Brumalia†: Ancient Greece

Christmas: Roman Empire° (Christian)

Dies Natalis Solis Invicti†: Roman Empire

Deuorius Riuri†: Gaul

Hogmanay°: Scotland

Korochun°: (Slavs)

Malkh-Festival°: (Nakh peoples)

Mōdraniht†: Western Germany (Matres and Matrones)

Midvinterblót†: Sweden (Norse)

Montol Festival, Mummer’s Day°: Cornwall (Celts)

Saturnalia†: Rome

Wren’s Day°: Ireland, Isle of Man, Wales (Celts)

Yule, Jul°: (Germanic)

Ziemassvētki: Baltic (Romuva)


Matariki°: New Zealand (Māori)

† dagger shows extinction. ° degree symbol shows adjustments in date, name or place. ( ) imply demographic

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